Wednesday, April 26, 2017
Tuesday, April 25, 2017
Sunday, April 23, 2017
Saturday, April 22, 2017
Thursday, April 13, 2017
උගුඩුවා/කලවැද්දා[Uguduwa/Kalawadda]/Common Palm Civet/Toddy Cat/Palm Cat (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus)
papaw, passion fruits, pineapple, kithul (Caryota urens) etc. But Common Palm Civet also eats rats, mice, frogs, birds, spiders, cockroaches as well as domestic chickens. It has a habit of depositing its droppings which often contain large quantities of undigested kithul and other hard-shelled seeds, on the top of large rocks and fallen tree trunks. It breeds throughout the year though more young are seen in the latter part of the year before the North-East monsoon. The young are brought forth in a hole in a tree, dry nook under overhanging rocks or often in a dry corner of a ceiling. Usually litter size is 3 or 4 in Sri Lanka. Except when a mother is accompanied by her broods it is usually seen singly.
Tuesday, April 11, 2017
* As per Senaratna L.K., 2001 Kyllinga bulbosa Beauv. is a synonym of Cyperus triceps (Rottb.) Endl. But according to the http://www.theplantlist.org Cyperus triceps Endl. is a synonym of Cyperus dubius Rottb. http://www.theplantlist.org accept Kyllinga bulbosa as a separate species.
Sunday, April 9, 2017
An introduced weed native to the tropical Africa and Madagascar. According to the Flora of Ceylon Vol 5 it was only known from a place between Pussellawa and Ramboda at mile 28/10 along Kandy -Nuwaraeliya Rd (950 m a.s.l. ) in the Nuwaraeliya district. It is also noted that apparently it was a rather recent introduction. Since then (1985) it seems that it has become a widely distributed weed in paddy fields, marshes and roadsides, at least in the moist areas from lowland to the hill country (Personal observations).
Saturday, April 8, 2017
Friday, April 7, 2017
Thursday, April 6, 2017
Tuesday, April 4, 2017
Reference : Amarasinghe A.P.P.R.& Wijesundara D.S.A., 2011, A new species of rhinacanthus (Acanthaceae) from Sri lanka, Edinburge Journal of Botany 68(3): 333-337 (2011)
Monday, April 3, 2017
Sunday, April 2, 2017
* According to http://www.theplantlist.org Cyperus kyllingia Endl. is a synonym of Rhynchospora colorata (L.) H.Pfeiff. - http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-237155 and Kyllinga nemoralis (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) Dandy ex Hutch. & Dalziel is an accepted name but it is a synonym of Cyperus kyllingia Endl. as per Senaratna K., 2001 - http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-251375
Saturday, April 1, 2017
Friday, March 31, 2017
var. pilosa (Above pic) - Without or usually with very small white ray flowers. Only known from Peradeniya-Kandy area. Flowering from November to March.
var. minor - Very common weed of roadsides, disturbed places, cultivated grounds, etc. in the montaze zone. Flowering occurs throughout the year.
Thursday, March 30, 2017
Wednesday, March 29, 2017
Tuesday, March 28, 2017
Monday, March 27, 2017
Sunday, March 26, 2017
Saturday, March 25, 2017
Friday, March 24, 2017
Thursday, March 23, 2017
Wednesday, March 22, 2017
Tuesday, March 21, 2017
An indigenous herb occurs as two varieties in the island.
- P, l, lappacea (Above Picture) - Grows open dry places along forest edges.
- P. l. orbiculata - Common in the sandy places behind the shoreline.
Monday, March 20, 2017
Sunday, March 19, 2017
Saturday, March 18, 2017
Thursday, March 16, 2017
Wednesday, March 15, 2017
Tuesday, March 14, 2017
Monday, March 13, 2017
Sunday, March 12, 2017
Saturday, March 11, 2017
Friday, March 10, 2017
Thursday, March 9, 2017
Wednesday, March 8, 2017
Tuesday, March 7, 2017
Monday, March 6, 2017
Sunday, March 5, 2017
Saturday, March 4, 2017
Friday, March 3, 2017
Thursday, March 2, 2017
Tuesday, February 28, 2017
* Common Hawk Cuckoo very closely resembles the Shikra not only in both adults and juvenile coloration, but also by habitual posture, style of flight and even size.
Saturday, February 25, 2017
Sunday, January 29, 2017
Thursday, January 26, 2017
Comb Duck/Knob-billed Duck/Nukhta/කැබැලිත්තා/කැබැලිතියා[Kebalitta/Kebalitiya](Sarkidiornis melanotos)
As per W.E. Wait this large duck is nowhere common but may be met with in small flocks on large weedy tanks in the heart of the jungles in the north and east of the island (Wait, W.E. 1931)
While contributing an article to the Loris magazine on the Decrease of Wildfowl in 1951 C.E. Norris doubted whether Comb Duck can be considered as a resident breeding species or even present any longer in the island. The extermination of this duck from the island he considered occurs due to extensive shooting by [so called] 'sportsmen'.
W. W. A Phillips in 1948 and C.E. Norris in 1974, considered it as an extirpated bird species from Sri Lanka. G.M. Henry in 1955 noted that it does not appear to have seen for many years and feared that it was extinct in the island (Henry, G.M., 1955).
On 4th December 1960 two large ducks believed to be of this species were observed by C.E. Norris at Lahugala and again on 21st February 1961 a courting pair was observed at the same location. The second observation was made by a game ranger P. Jayawardena and he had obtained excellent view of them and identification was confirmed. Referring these observations W.W.A. Phillips noted that few ducks may be still survive as residents in that area though it had not been observed during that century and was believed to be extinct from the island. (Ebbels, D.L, 1961 & Phillips, W. W. A., 1978) It was also observed at Ruhunu National Park (Yala) during the same period and not been seen again (Savage, C.D.W., 1968)
Sarath Kotagama & Prithiviraj Fernando in 1994 and J. Harrison & T. Worfolk in 1999 considered it as an extirpated bird species from Sri Lanka.
Report from the Ceylon Bird Club for 2002 recorded two Comb Ducks at Vaddukoddai on March 2002 (Siriwardana, U. 2003a) and it was also observed during the annual waterbird census for 2003 conducted from mid January to mid February by the CBC, in association with Wetland International [Observed location was not mentioned](Siriwardana, U. 2003b). 2004 CBC Report also given two observations. One at Uduvil of Jaffna peninsula on February 2003 and another 3 birds at Giant tank on April same year. (Warakagoda D. & Sirivardana U., 2004)
Probably considering these occasional observations, in their second edition of the Field Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka Harrison J & Worfolk T. noted that Comb Duck is possibly becoming re-established in the island. However Kotagama S. and Ratnavira G. in 2010 while mentioning above two observations in Mannar and Jaffna areas considered it as a status uncertain bird also stating that it was a former resident but was considered as an extirpated bird later on.
It re-appeared again in 2012 with several sightings. Weeratunga V. et. al. reported flock of five males from Wewegama tank in the proposed Mattala Manage Elephant Range in July 2012. Even before that Dr. Thilak Jayaratne made an observation at Vankali lagoon on 16th April and Asith Jayewardhane reported 13 birds at Magalle tank in Nikawaretiya on 21st July (It was the largest number of birds recorded from Sri Lanka in the recent history.) Also 10 individual were reported from Debarawewa by H.K. Janaka on 3rd August 2012 and 3 females in Bundala on 15th September by H.K. Janaka and Dr. Prithiviraj Fernando. (Weerathunga V. et. al., 2013 ). Report from the CBC for 2012 contains several more sightings (A bird was seen by Nanda Senanayake and others in early July, 3 males observed at Giant tank on July, 12 at Debera wewa on August, Single bird at Embilikala and 6 at Debara wewa on September and another single bird at Mannar during December same year) - (Samaraweera P., 2013)
Two more subsequent sightings were reported at CBC web site -
- Single female from Navadankulama tank on February 2013 by Tara Wickramanayake & Kithsiri Gunawardena.
- On 7th November 2016 Uditha Hettige has observed 47 birds at Debera wewa.
* Above single bird was photographed at Olupattawa wewa near Polgasowita of Colombo district on 25th January 2017.
Comb Duck inhabits weedy tanks and lives as small flocks. It feeds on varies vegetable substances like grains, grasses, seeds of water plants, paddy and also variety of aquatic animals. It has a powerful speedy flight. It is less nocturnal contrary to most ducks and roosts at night on larger boughs of trees. The breeding season on Sri Lanka was reported as February to March. The nest is a collection of grass and sticks mixed with feathers and placed in a large hollow in the trunk of a big tree growing near water where it lays 7 to 12 or more eggs. It breeds in Africa, India, South China and South America.
- Ebbels, D.L, 1961, Notes from Ceylon Bird Club January - June, 1961, Loris Vol IX, No 2, December 1961.
- Harrison J. & Worfolk T., 1999 A Field Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka
- Harrison J. & Worfolk T., 2011 A Field Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka, Second Edition
- Henry G.M. 1998 A Guide to the birds of Sri Lanka. (3rd edition).
- Kotagama S. & Fernando P., 1994, A field guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka.
- Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010. An illustrated Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka.
- Legge 1880 A History of the birds of Ceylon 1983 second edition.
- Norris C.E., 1974, The Waterfowl of Sri Lanka, Loris, Vol XIII, No 4, December 1974.
- Norris C.E, 1951, Decrease of Wildfowl, Loris Vol VI, No 1, December 1951.
- Phillips, W. W. A., 1948, Ducks-1947/1948, Loris Vol IV, No 6, June 1948.
- Phillips, W. W. A., 1978, Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), 1978
- Savage, C.D.W., 1968, Wetlands and Wildfowl of Ceylon, Loris Vol XI No 3, June 1968
- Samaraweera P., 2013, Report from the Ceylon Bird Club for 2012, Loris Vol 26, No 5 & 6
- Siriwardana, U. 2003a Report from the Ceylon Bird Club for 2002, Loris Vol 23 No 3&4.
- Siriwardana, U. 2003b The 2003 Waterbird Census in Sri Lanka, Loris Vol 23 No 3&4.
- Wait, W.E. 1931, Manual of the Birds of Ceylon , second edition, 1931.
- Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012. Helm Field Guides - Birds of Sri Lanka.
- Warakagoda D. & Sirivardana U., 2004. Report from the Ceylon Bird Club for 2003, Loris Vol 23, No 5 & 6
- Weerathunga V. et. al., 2013, Return of the Comb Duck (Sarkidiornis melanotos) to Sri Lanka, Siyoth, Vol 3.
Sunday, January 15, 2017
Saturday, January 14, 2017
Thursday, January 12, 2017
Location - Arankele
Wing Expanse - 5- 5.4 cm
Reference - The Lepidoptera of Ceylon - F. Moore, F.Z.S. Vol 3 Page 153-154 As Taramina torsa ?
External Links - http://www.inaturalist.org/listed_taxa/3412271