Diversity of the Mammals of Sri Lanka

    Total terrestrial mammals in Sri Lanka described to date includes 95 species. And 21 out of them are endemic to the island. There are also 12 species of introduced or domesticated mammals while feral populations of some of them exist such as Donkeys and wild horses in Kalpitiya and Delft islands. Indian ocean around the island is also rich with 30 species of marine mammals such as Dolphins and whales. 


Order: PHOLIDOTA


Family: Pangolin (Manidae)

1
Species: Manis crassicaudata, Gray 1827(Pangolin/Kaballewa) 
NT

Order: INSECTIVORA


Family: Shrews (Soricidae)

2
Species: Crocidura horsfieldi, Tomes, 1856 (Horsfield’s Shrew)
CR
3
Species: Crocidura miya, Phillips, 1929 (Ceylon Long-tailed Shrew)
CR
4
Species: Crocidura hikmiya Meegaskumbura 2007 (Sinharaja Shrew)
CR
5
Species: Feroculus feroculus, Kelaart, 1850 ( Kelaart’s Long-clawed Shrewa)
EN
6
Species: Solisorex pearsoni, Thomas, 1924 ( Pearson’s Long-clawed Shrew)
CR
7
Species: Suncus etruscus, Savi, 1822 ( Pigmy Shrew)
EN
8
Species: Suncus fellowes-gordoni, Phillips, 1932 (Sri Lanka Pygmy Shrew)
EN
9
Species: Suncus montanus,Kelaart, 1850 ( Highland Shrew)
EN
10
Species: Suncus murinus, Linnaeus, 1766 ( House Shrew)
LC
11
Species: Suncus zeylanicus, Phillips, 1928 (Sri Lanka jungle shrew)
DD

Order: CHIROPTERA


Family: Sheath-tailed bats (Emballonuridae)

12
Species: Taphozous longimanus, Hardwicke, 1825 (Long-armed sheath-tailed bat)
EN
13
Species: Taphozous melanopagan, Temminck, 1841 ( Black-bearded sheath-tailed bat)
VU
14
Species: Taphozous saccolaimus, Temminck, 1838 (Pouch-bearing sheath-tailed bat) 
CR

Family: Leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideridae)

15
Species: Hipposideros ater, Templeton, 1848 (Bi-colored leaf-nosed bat)
LC
16
Species: Hipposideros fulvus, Gray, 1838( Fulvous Leaf-nosed bat)
EN
17
Species: Hipposideros galeritus, Cantor, 1846 (Dekhan leaf-nosed bat)
VU
18
Species: Hipposideros lankadiva, Kelaart, 1850 (Great leaf-nosed bat)
VU
19
LC

Family: False-vampire bats (Megadermatidae)

20
Species: Megaderma lyra, Geoffroy, 1810 (False Vampire bat)
VU
21
VU

Family: Free-tailed bats (Molossidae)

22
Species: Tadarida aegyptiaca, Geoffroy, 1818 ( Coninental wrinkled-lipped bat)
CR
23
Species: Tadarida plicatus, Buchnnan, 1800 (Common  wrinkled-lipped bat)
CR

Family: Fruit bats and Flying foxes (Pteropodidae)

24
Species: Cyanopterus brachyotis, Muller, 1838 ( Lesser dog-nosed fruit bat)
EN
25
Species: Cyanopterus sphinx, Vahl, 1797 ( Short-nosed Fruit bat)
LC
26
LC
27
Species: Rousettus leschenaulti, Desmarest, 1820 (Fulvous fruit bat)
LC

Family: Horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae)

28
VU
29
LC

Family: Evening bats, Tube-nosed bats, Long-winged bats and Painted bats  (Vespertilionidae)

30
Species: Hesperoptenus tickelii, Blyth, 1851 ( Tickell’s bat)
DD
31
Species: Kerivoula hardwickeii, Horsefield, 1824 (Malpas's bat)
CR
32
Species: Kerivoula picta Pallas, 1767 (Painted bat)
NT
33
Species: Miniopterous schreibersii, Kuhl, 1819 (Long-winged bat)
EN
34
Species: Myotis hasselti, Temminck, 1840 (Brown bat)
NT
35
Species: Murina cyclotis, Dobson, 1872 (Tube-nosed bat)
NT
36
Species: Pipistrellus affinis, Dobson, 1871(Chocolate bat)
CR
37
Species: Pipistrellus ceylonicus, Kelaart, 1852 (Kelaart's pipistrel)
EN
38
Species: Pipistrellus coromandra, Gray, 1838 (Indian pipistrel)
VU
39
Species: Pipistrellus tenuis, Temminck, 1840 (Pygmy Pipistrel)
LC
40
Species: Scotophilus heathii, Horsefield, 1831 (Great yellow bat)
VU
41
Species: Scotophilus kuhlii, Leach, 1821 (Lesser yellow bat)
DD

Order: PRIMATES


Family: Monkeys (Cercopithecidae)

42
LC
43
LC
44
EN

Family: Lorises (Lorisidae)

45
Species: Loris lydekkerianus,  Cabrera, 1908 (Grey slender loris/Alu Unahapuluwa)
NT
46
Species: Loris tardigradus, Linnaeus, 1758 (Sri Lanka Red slender loris/ Rath Unahapuluwa)
VU

Order: CARNIVORA


Family: Dogs (Canidae)

47
Species: Canis aureus, Linnaeus, 1758 (Jackal/Nariya/Hiwala)
LC

Family: Cats, Leopards (Felidae)

48
Species: Felis chaus, Gueldenstaedt, 1776 (Jungle Cat/Wal balala)
NT
49
Species: Panthera pardus kotiya, Linnaeus, 1758 (Leopard/Kotiya)
EN
50
Species: Prionailurus rubiginosus, Geoffroy, 1831 (Rusty-spotted cat/Kola diviya/Balal diviya)
EN
51
Species: Prionailurus viverrinus, Bennett, 1833 (Fishing cat/Handun diviya)
EN

Family: Mongooses (Herpestidae)

52
Species: Herpestes brachyurus, Gray, 1837 (Brown Mongoose/Bora Mugatiya)
LC
53
Species: Herpestes edwardsii, Geoffroy, 1818 (Grey Mongoose/Alu mugatiya)
LC
54
LC
55
Species: Herpestes vitticollis Bennett, 1835 ( Stripe-necked Mongoos/Maha Mugatiya/Gal mugatiya)
VU

Family: Otters (Mustelidae)

56
Species: Lutra lutra Linnaeus, 1758 (Otter/Diya-balla)
VU

Family: Bears (Ursidae)

57
Species: Melursus ursinus Show & Nodder, 1791 (Sloth Bear/Walaha)
EN

Family: Civets & Palm-cats (Viverridae)

58
Species: Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Pallas, 1777 (Palm cat/Uguduwa/Kalawadda)
LC
59
Species: Paradoxurus aureus F.cuvier, 1822 ( Golden wet-zone palm civet)
EN
60
Species: Paradoxurus stenocephalus, Colin P. Groves et al. 2009 (Golden dry-zone palm civet) 
CR
61
Species: Paradoxurus montanus Kelaart, 1852 (Sri Lankan brown palm civet)
EN
62
Species: Viverricula indica Desmarest, 1817 (Ring-tailed civet/Urulewa)
LC

Order: PROBOSCIDEA


Family: Elephants (Elephantidae)

63
Species: Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Asian Elephant/Aliya/Etha)
EN

Order: ARTIODACTYLA


Family: Buffaloes (Bovidae)

64
VU

Family: Deer (Cervidae)

65
LC
66
Species: Axis porcinus Zimmermann, 1777 (Hog deer/Vil muwa/ Gona muwa)
CR
67
NT
78
NT

Family: Pigs (Suidae)

79
LC

Family: Mouse-deer (Tragulidae)

70
Species: Moschiola  meminna Erexleben, 1777 (Sri Lanka Mouse deer/ Sri lanka Meeminna)
LC
71
Species: Moschiola  kathygre Groves & Meijaard, 2005 (Sri Lanka pygmy mouse-deer/Sri Lanka kuru meeminna)
VU

Order: RODENTIA


Family: Porcupines (Hystricidae)

72
Species: Hystrix indica Kerr, 1792 (Pocupine/Ittewa)
LC

Family: Bandicoots, Rats, Mice (Muridae)

73
Species: Bandicota bengalensis Gray, 1835 (Mole Rat/Heen Uru-meeya)
LC
74
Species: Bandicota indica Bechstein, 1800 ( Malabar Bandicoot/Uru meeya)
LC
75
Species: Madromys blanfordi Thomas, 1881( White-tailed rat)
EN
76
Species: Golunda ellioti Gray, 1837 (Bush rat)
EN
77
Species: Millardia meltada Gray, 1837 ( Soft-furred Field Rat )
EN
78
Species: Mus booduga Gray 1837 ( Field Mous)
LC
79
Species: Mus fernandoni Phillips, 1932 (Sri Lanka Spiny mouse)
EN
80
Species: Mus mayori Thomas 1915 ( Sri Lanka Spiny rat)
EN
81
Species: Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 ( Indian House Mouse)
LC
82
Species: Rattus montanus Phillips, 1932 (Nelu rat)
CR
83
Species: Rattus rattus Linnaeus, 1758 (Common rat)
LC
84
Species: Rattus tanezumi  Temminck, 1844
NT
85
Species: Srilankamys ohiensis Phillips, 1929 (Sri Lanka bicolored rat)
EN
86
Species: Vandeleuria nolthenii Philipps 1929 (Sri Lanka long-tailed tree mouse)
CR
87
Species: Vandeleuria oleracea Bennett, 1832 (Long-tailed tree mouse)
VU
88
Species: Tatera indica Hardwicke, 1807 (Antelope rat)
LC

Family: Flying Squirrels (Pteromyidae)

89
Species: Petaurista philippensis Elliot, 1839 (Giant Flying Squirrel/Maha-hambawa)
EN
90
EN

Family: Squirrels (Sciuridae)

91
Species: Funambulus layardi Blyth, 1849 (Sri lanka flame-striped jungle squirrel/Mookalan Lena)
VU
92
LC
93
VU
94
LC

Order: LAGOMORPHA


Family: Hares & Rabbits (Leporidae)

95
Species: Lepus nigricollis Cuvier, 1823 (Black-naped hare/Hawa)
LC

Introduced terrestrial mammals


Order: CARNIVORA


Family: Dogs (Canidae)

1
Species: Canis familiaris(Domestic dog/Balla)


Family: Cats, Leopards (Felidae)

2
Species: Felis catus (Domestic cat/Balala/Pusa)


Order: ARTIODACTYLA


Family: Buffaloes (Bovidae)

3
Species: Bos ndicus (Domestic hump-backed cattle/Sinhala elaharaka/Batu Haraka)

4
Species: Bos taurus (European cattle/Rata elaharaka)

5
Species: Bubalus bubalis ( Domestic water buffalo/Mee haraka)

6
Species: Capra hircus (Domestic goat/Eluva)

7
Species: Ovis aries (Domestic sheep/Betaluwa)


Family: Pigs (Suidae)

8
Species: Sus domesticus (Domestic pig/Gam ura)


Order: PERISODACTYLA


Family: Equidae

9

10
Species: Equus caballus (Mannar ponies/Delft ponies/Horse/Poniya/Aswaya)


Order: RODENTIA


Family: Bandicoots, Rats, Mice (Muridae)

11
Species: Rattus norvegicus (Brown rat)


Order: LAGOMORPHA


Family: Hares & Rabbits (Leporidae)

12
Species: Oryctolagus cuniculus (Domestic rabbit/Rata hawa)


Marine mammals recorded from the sea around Sri Lanka


Order: CETACEA


Family: Balaenopteridae  (Rorquals and Hump-Nosed Whales)

1
Species: Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Mink Whale)

2
Species: Balaenoptera borealis(Sei Whale)

3
Species: Balaenoptera edeni (Bryde's Whale)

4
Species: Balaenoptera musculus (Blue Whale)

5
Species: Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)

6
Species: Megaptera novaeangliae (Hump-Backed Whale)


Family: Delphinidae (Dolphins and Killer Whales)

7
Species: Delphinus delphis (Common Dolphin)

8
Species: Feresa attenuata (Pygmy killer Whale)

9
Species: Globicephala macrorhinchus (Short finned pilot Whale)

10
Species: Grampus griseus(Rissos dolphin/Gray Dolphin

11
Species: Lagenodelphis hosei(Fraser's Dolphin)

12
Species: Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)

13
Species: Peponocephala electra (Melon headed Dolphin)

14
Species: Pseudorca crassidens (False Killer Whales)

15
Species: Sousa chinensis (Indo-pacific hump-back Dolpin)

16
Species: Stenella attenuata (Pan tropical spotted Dolphin)

17
Species: Stenella coeruleoalba (Striped Dolphin)

18
Species: Stenella longirostris (Spinner Dolphin)

19
Species: Steno bredanensis ( Rough-toothed Dolphin)

20
Species: Tursiops truncatus (Bottle-Nosed Dolphin)

21
Species: Tursiops aduncus (Indo-pacific Bottlenosed Dolphin)


Family: Phocoenidae (Porpoises)

22
Species: Neophocoena phocaenoides (Finless propoise)


Family: Physeteridae (Sperm Whales) 

23
Species: Physter macrocephalus (Sperm whale)


Family: Kogiidae

24
Species: Kogia breviceps (Pygmy Sperm Whale)

25
Species: Kogia sima (Dwarf Sperm Whale)


Family: Ziphiidae (Beaked Whales)

26
Species: Indopacetus pacificus (Longman’s Beaked Whale)

27
Species: Mesoplodon densirostris (Blainville's Beaked Whale)

28
Species: Mesoplodon hotaula (Ginkgo-Tooth Beaked Whale)

29
Species: Ziphius cavirostris (Goose-Beaked/Cuvier's Beaked Whale)


Order: SIRENIA


Family: Dugongidae

30
Species: Dugong dugon (Common dugong/Sea cow/Muhudu Ura)






References & Literature cited:

  • Banks John and Judy 2006. A selection of the animals of Sri Lanka, Stamford lake publication, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  • Brandon-jones, Douglas. 2004. A taxonomic revision of the langurs and leaf monkeys (Primates: Colobinae) of South Asia. Zoos Print Journal 19 (8):1552-1594.
  • Chakraborty, S., Sirinivasalu, C., Sirinivasalu, B., Pradhan, M.S. and Nameer, P.O. 2004. Checklist of insectivores (Mammalia: Insectivora) of South Asia. Zoos Print Journal 19 (2):1361-1371.
  • Dissanayakea Rajith and Oshidab Tatsuo 2011, The systematics of the dusky striped squirrel, Funambulus sublineatus (Waterhouse, 1838) (Rodentia: Sciuridae) and its relationships to Layard’s squirrel, Funambulus layardi Blyth, 1849. Journal of Natural History Vol. 46, Nos. 1–2, January 2012, 91–116 
  • Groves C. P. and Meijaar E. , 2005. Interspecific variation in Moschiola, The Indian chevrotain,  The Raffles bulletin of zoology Supplement No. 12: 413–421
  • Groves C. P., Rajapaksha C,  Manamendra-Arachchi K 2009.  The taxonomy of the endemic golden palm civet of Sri Lanka,  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 155, Issue 1, pages 238–251, January 2009
  • Ilangakoon, A. 2002. Whales and dolphins of Sri Lanka. WHT publications, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  • Illangakoon A.D. (2006) Taxonomy and current status of marine mammals in Sri Lanka IN: The    fauna of Sri lanka:  status of taxonomy, research and conservation. IUCN, Sri lanka: 302-308..
  • IUCN Sri Lanka & the Ministry of Environmental and Natural Resources. 2007.  The 2007 Red List of Threatened Fauna and Flora of Sri Lanka. Colombo.
  • Kotagama Sarath 2004. Pictorial pocket guide - 3 Mammals in Sri Lanka, Field Ornithology group of Sri Lanka. Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • Mckay, G.M. 1984. Ecology and biogeography of mammals. In: Biogeography and Ecology of Sri Lanka. Ed. Fernando, C.H. Dr. W. Junk Publishers. 413-429.
  • Meegaskumbura S., Meegaskumbura M., Pethiyagoda R., Manamendra-Arachchi K. & Schneider Chrostopher J.  2007. Crocidura hikmiya, a new shrew (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae)  from Sri LankaZootaxa 1665: 19–30 
  • Miththapala Sriyanie (2006) The ecology of the wild cats of Sri Lanka IN: The    fauna of Sri lanka:  status of taxonomy, research and conservation. IUCN, Sri lanka: 235-257
  • Phillips, W.W.A. 1980. Manual of the mammals of Sri Lanka Part 1, 2 and 3, Wildlife and nature protection society of Sri Lanka. Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  • Sirinivasalu, C. and Pradhan, M.S. 2003. Checklist of murids (Mammalia: Rodentia: Muridae) of South Asia. Zoos Print Journal 18 (12):1286-1310.
  • Sirinivasalu, C. and Sirinivasalu, B. 2004. Checklist of scandents and pholidots (Mammalia: Scandentia and Pholidota) of South Asia. Zoos Print Journal 19 (2):1372-1374.
  • Sirinivasalu, C., Chakraborty, S. and Pradhan, M.S. 2004. Checklist of sciurids (Mammalia: Rodentia:Sciuridae) of South Asia. Zoos Print Journal 19 (2):1351-1360.
  • Sirinivasalu, C., Sirinivasalu, B., Chakraborty, S., Pradhan, M.S. and Nameer, P.O. 2004. Checklist of logomorphs (Mammalia: Logomorpha) of South Asia. Zoos Print Journal 19 (2):1375-1380.
  • Weerakoon D.K. & Goonatilake W.L.D.P.T.S. de A.  (2006) Taxonomic status of the Mammals of Sri Lanka IN: The    fauna of Sri lanka:  status of taxonomy, research and conservation. IUCN, Sri lanka: 216-232.
  • Wijesinghe Mayuri R. (2006) Ecological traits of endemic small mammals in rainforests of Sri Lanka, and their implications for conservation IN: The    fauna of Sri lanka:  status of taxonomy, research and conservation. IUCN, Sri lanka: 232-235.
  • Wijeyeratne Gehan de Silva. 2008. A photographic guide to Mammals of Sri Lanka, New Holland publishers (Uk) Ltd.Weerakoon D. K. 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of Mammals in Sri Lanka. In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D.K. & S. Wijesundara Eds.,Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka 134-144pp

Endemic



EN Endangered

CR Critically Endangered
VU Vulnurable
EN Endangered
NT Near threatened

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