Tetrapod Reptiles of Sri Lanka

Literature published to date list 108 Tetrapoda reptile species in Sri Lanka (of which 76 are endemic) including five species of marine turtles that visit the beaches of the island for nesting. Considerable number of new species of geckos, skinks and Agamid lizards were discovered recently and current studies indicate the presence of several more new lizards in the country to be discovered or/and formally described. Other than these resident species at least one species of introduced terrapins (Invasive Red-eared Slider - Imported as a pet and escaped/released specimens have been established a stable population) present in few aquatic habitats, mainly around Colombo.



Family: Crocodylidae (Crocodiles)

1
NT
2
Species: Crocodylus porossus Schneider, 1801 (Saltwater or Estuarine crocodile/Gata kimbula)
EN

Bataguridae (Asian Pond Turtles)

3
LC



Cheloniidae (Marine Turtles)

4
Species: Caretta caretta Linnaeus, 1758 (Loggerhead Sea Turtle/Olugedi Kasbaeva)
EN
5
Species: Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 (Green Turtle/Gal Kasbaeva)
EN
6
Species: Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus, 1766 (Hawksbill Sea Turtle/Pothu Kasbaeva)
EN
7
Species: Lepidochelys olivacea Eschscholtz, 1829 (Olive Ridley Sea Turtle/Batu Kasbaeva) 
EN

Dermochelyidae (Leatherback Sea Turtle)

8
Species: Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli, 1761  (Leatherback Sea Turtle/Dhara Kasbaeva)
EN

Testudinidae (Land Tortoises)

9
NT

Trionychidae (Softshell Tortoises)

10
LC

Family: Agamidae (Agamid Lizards)

11
LC
12
NT
13
Species: Calotes desilvai Bahir & Maduwage, 2005 (Desilva's Lizard) 
CR
14
Species: Calotes liocephalus Günther, 1872 (Crestless Lizard/Lion-head Agama) 
EN
15
NT
16
EN
17
LC
18

19
EN
20
Species: Ceratophora erdeleni Pethiyagoda & Manamedra Arachchi 1998 (Erdelen's horn Lizard)
CR
21
Species: Ceratophora karu Pethiyagoda & Manamedra Arachchi 1998 (Karunaratne's horn Lizard) 
CR
22
EN
23
CR
24
Species: Cophotis ceylanica Peters, 1861 (Pygmy Lizard/Sri Lankan Deaf Agama)
EN
25
Species: Cophotis dumbara Samarawickrama et al, 2006 (Knuckles Pygmy Lizard/Knuckles Deaf Agama) 
CR
26
VU
27
Species: Otocryptis nigristigma Bahir & Silve, 2005 (Lowland Kangaroo Lizard/Earless Lizard/Pinum Katussa) 
LC
28
LC
29
LC

Family: Chamaeleonidae (Chameleon)

30
Species: Chameleo zeylanicus Laurenti, 1768 (Sri Lankan Chameleon/Bodiliya)
EN

Family: Gekkonidae (Geckos) 

31
Species: Calodactylodes illingworthorum Deraniyagala, 1953 (Sri Lanka Golden Gecko)
EN
32
Species: Cnemaspis alwisi Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa, 2007 (Alwis's Daygecko)
NT
33
Species: Cnemaspis amith Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, 2007 (Amith's Daygecko)
CR
34
Species: Cnemaspis clivicola Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, 2007 (Highland daygecko)
CR
35
Species: Cnemaspis gemunu Bauer et al, 2007 (Gemunu's Daygecko)
CR
36
Species: Cnemaspis kallima Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, 2007 (Ornate Daygecko)
CR
37
Species: Cnemaspis kandiana Kelaart, 1852 (Kandyan Daygecko)
EN
38
Species: Cnemaspis kumarasinghei Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa, 2007 (Kumarasinghe's day gecko)
EN
39
Species: Cnemaspis latha Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, 2007 (Flowery Daygecko)
CR
40
Species: Cnemaspis menikay Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, 2007 (Jewel Daygecko)
CR
41
Species: Cnemaspis molligodai Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa, 2007 (Molligoda's Daygecko)
EN
42
Species: Cnemaspis pava Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, 2007 (Little Daygecko)
CR
43
Species: Cnemaspis phillipsi Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, 2007 (Phillip's Daygecko)
CR
44
Species: Cnemaspis podihuna Deraniyagala, 1944 (Dwarf Daygecko)
VU
45
Species: Cnemaspis pulchra Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, 2007 (Paradise Daygecko)
CR
46
Species: Cnemaspis punctata Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, 2007 (Spotted Daygecko)
CR
47
Species: Cnemaspis retigalensis Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa, 2007 (Ritigala Daygecko) 
CR
48
Species: Cnemaspis samanalensis Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa, 2007 (Samanala Daygecko)
CR
49
Species: Cnemaspis scalpensis Ferguson, 1877 (Jerdon's Daygecko)
EN
50
EN
51
Species: Cnemaspis tropidogaster Boulenger, 1885 (Rough-belly Daygecko)
DD
52
Species: Cnemaspis upendrai Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita & Pethiyagoda, 2007 (Upendra's Daygecko)
CR
53
Species: Cyrtodactylus cracens Batuwita & Bahir, 2005 (Sinharaja Bent-toed Gecko)
EN
54
Species: Cyrtodactylus edwardtaylori Batuwita & Bahir, 2005 (Taylor's Bent-toed Gecko/Namunukula Bent-toed Gecko)
CR
55
Species: Cyrtodactylus fraenatus Günther, 1864 (Bridled Bent-toed Gecko/Great Forest Gecko)
CR
56
Species: Cyrtodactylus ramboda Batuwita & Bahir, 2005 (Ramboda Bent-toed Gecko)
CR
57
Species: Cyrtodactylus soba Batuwita & Bahir, 2005 (Knuckles Bent-toed Gecko)
CR
58
Species: Cyrtodactylus subsolanus Batuwita & Bahir, 2005 (Rakwana/Dolahena Bent-toed Gecko)
CR
59
VU
60
Species: Geckoella collegalensis Beddome, 1870 (Collegal Rockgecko/Kollegal Ground Gecko)
DD
61
Species: Geckoella yakhuna Deraniyagala, 1945 (Blotch Bowfinger Gecko/Demon Gecko)
VU
62
LC
63
LC
64
Species: Hemidactylus frenatus Schlegel, 1836 (Common House Gecko) 
LC
65
Species: Hemidactylus hunae Deraniyagala, 1937 (Spotted Giant Gecko)
EN
66
Species: Hemidactylus lankae Deraniyagala, 1953 (Termite-hill Gecko) 
LC
67
LC
68
LC
69
EN
70
Species: Hemidactylus platyrus Schneider, 1792 (Frill-tailed Gecko) 
DD
71
Species: Hemidactylus scabriceps Annandale, 1906 (Scaly Gecko)
DD
72
Species: Hemiphyllodactylus typus Bleeker, 1860 (Slender Gecko) 
VU
73
Species: Lepidodactylus lugubris Dumeril & Bibron, 1836 (Scaly-finger Gecko/Mourning Gecko)
VU

Family: Lacertidae (Snake-eye lizards)

74
Species: Ophisops leschenaultii lankae Deraniyagala, 1953 (Leschenault's snake-eye lizard)
CR
75
Species: Ophisops minor minor Deraniyagala, 1971 (Lesser snake-eye lizard) 
CR

Family: Scincidae (Skinks)

76
Species: Chalcides cf. ocellatus Forskal, 1775 (Ocellated Skink/Eyed Skink/Gongilo)
DD
77
Species: Chalcidoseps thwaitesii Günther 1872 (Four-toe Snakeskink)
CR
78
Species: Dasia halianus Haly & Nevil, 1887 (Haly's treeskink) 
NT
79
Species: Eutropis beddomii Jerdon, 1870 (Beddome's Striped Skink) 
EN
80
Species: Eutropis bibronii Gray,1838 (Bibron's Sand Skink) 
EN
81
LC
82
Species: Eutropis floweri Taylor, 1950 (Taylor's Skink) 
EN
83
Species: Eutropis macularia Blyth, 1853 (Bronzegreen little skink) 
LC
84
Species: Eutropis madaraszi Mechely, 1897 (Spotted Skink)
VU
85
Species: Eutropis tammanna Das, de Silva & Austin, 2008 (Tammana Skink) 
LC
86
Species: Lankascincus deignani Taylor, 1950 (Deignan's Lankaskink)
EN
87
Species: Lankascincus deraniyagalae Greer, 1991 (Deraniyagala's Lankaskink) 
EN
88
Species: Lankascincus dorsicatenatus Deraniyagala, 1953 (Catenated Lankaskink)
EN
89
Species: Lankascincus fallax Peters,1860 (Common Lankaskink) 
LC
90
Species: Lankascincus gansi Greer,1991 (Gans's Lankaskink) 
VU
91
Species: Lankascincus greeri Batuwita & Pethiyagoda (Greer's Lankaskink)
EN
92
Species: Lankascincus munindradasai Wickramasinghe et al, 2007 (Munindradasa's Lankaskink)
CR
93
Species: Lankascincus sripadensis Wickramasinghe et al, 2007 (Sripada Forest Skink/Sripada Lankaskink) 
CR
94
Species: Lankascincus taprobanensis Kelaart,1854 (Smooth Lankaskink) 
EN
95
Species: Lankascincus taylori Greer 1991 (Taylor's Lankaskink) 
EN
96
LC
97
Species: Lygosoma singha Taylor 1950 (Taylor's Skink/ Sri Lankan Supple Skink)
DD
98
Species: Nessia bipes Smith, 1935 (Smith's Snakeskink) 
EN
99
Species: Nessia burtonii Gray, 1839 (Three-toe Snakeskink) 
LC
100
Species: Nessia deraniyagalai Taylor, 1950 (Daraniyagala's Snakeskink) 
DD
101
Species: Nessia didactylus Deraniyagala, 1934 (Two-toe Snakeskink) 
EN
102
Species: Nessia hickanala Deraniyagala, 1940 (Shark-head Snakeskink)
CR
103
Species: Nessia layardi Kelaart, 1853 (Layard's Snakeskink)
EN
104
Species: Nessia monodactylus Gray 1839 (Toeless Snakeskink)
EN
105
Species: Nessia sarasinorum Müller, 1889 (Sarasin's Snakeskink)
VU
106
Species: Sphenomorphus dussumieri Duméril & Bibron, 1839 (Dussumier’s litter skink;)
DD
107
Species: Sphenomorphus megalops Annadale,1906 (Annandale's Litter Skink)
DD

Family: Varanidae (Monitor lizards)

108
Species: Varanus bengalensis Daudin, 1802 (Land Monitor/Thalagoya) 
LC
109
LC

Emydidae (American Hardshelled Turtles)


Species: Trachemys scripta  (Red-eared Slider) 






EN Endangered
CR Critically Endangered
VU Vulnurable
NT Near threatened
DD Data Deficient

References & Literature cited:


Amarasinghe T. et. al., 2014 A new species of the genus Calotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from high elevations of the Knuckles Massif of Sri Lanka. Amarasinghe A.A.T., Karunarathna D.M.S.S., Hallermann J., fujinuma J., Grillitsch H. & Campbell P.D. Zootaxa 3785 (1): 059078.

Bahir  Mohomed. M. & Maduwage K.P. (2005),  Calotes desivai, A new species of Agamid lizard from Morningside forest, Sri lanka, The Raffles bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 12: 381–392

Bahir  Mohomed. M. & Silva A. (2005), Otocryptis nigristigma, A new species of Agamid lizard from Sri Lanka, The Raffles bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 12: 393–406 

Batuwita, S. and Bahir, M. M. (2005). Description of five new species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from Sri Lanka. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement 12: 351–380.

Batuwita S. & Pethiyagoda R. (2007) Description of a new species of Sri Lankan litter skink (SQUAMATA: SCINCIDAE: LANKASCINCUS)), Cey. J. Sci. (Bio. Sci.) 36 (2): 80-87.  

Bauer Aaron M., de Silva A., Greenbaum Eli & Jackman Todd (2007), A new species of day gecko from high elevation in Sri Lanka, with a preliminary phylogeny of Sri Lankan Cnemaspis (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae), Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl., Zool. Reihe 83 (2007) Supplement, 22–32

Das, I. & De Silva, A. (2005) Snakes and other reptiles of Sri Lanka. pp 1–144. New Holland Publishers.

Das, I. & De Silva, A & Austin C.C. (2008) A new species of Eutropis (Squamata: Scincidae) from Sri Lanka, Zootaxa 1700: 35–52

Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (1953) A coloured atlas of some vertebrates from Ceylon: Vol. 2. Tetrapod Reptilia. pp 1–100. The Ceylon Government Press.

Deraniyagala, P. E. P. (1931). Some Ceylon lizards. Ceylon Journal of Science (Section B), 16 (2): 139–180.

Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (1944). A new Cnemaspis gecko from Ceylon. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society 36; 226-227.

de Silva, A. (2006) Current status of the reptiles of Sri Lanka, In: Bambaradeniya, C. N. B. (Eds.). Fauna of Sri Lanka: Status of taxonomy, research and conservation, pp 34–163. IUCN Sri Lanka.

Greer, A. (1991). Lankascincus, a new genus of scincid lizards from Sri Lanka, with description of three new species. Journal of Herpetology, 25 (1): 59–64.

IUCN Sri Lanka & the Ministry of Environment & Natural Resources. 2007. The 2007 Red List of Threatened Fauna & Flora of Sri Lanka. Colombo, Sri Lanka. xii+148pp.

Karunarathna D. M. S. S., Wickramasinghe L. J. M., Samarawickrama V. A. P. & Munindradasa D. A. I. (2007) The range extension of genus Chalcides LAURENTI, 1768 (REPTILIA: SCINCIDAE) to Sri lanka, Cey. J. Sci. (Bio. Sci.) 36 (2): 80-87.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Batuwita, S. & Pethiyagoda, R. 2007. A taxonomic revision of the Sri Lankan day-geckos (Reptilia: Gekkonidae: Cnemaspis), with description of new species from Sri Lanka and Southern India. Zeylanica.7(1): 9-122. Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka

Pethiyagoda, R. & K. Manamendra-Archchi (1998), A revision of the endemic Sri Lankan agamid lizard genus Ceratophora, Gray, 1835, with description of two new species. Journal of South Asian Natural History 3: 1–50.

Samarawickrama V. A. M. P. K.,Ranawana K. B.,Rajapaksha D. R. N. S., Ananjeva Natalia B.,Orlov  Nikolai L., Ranasinghe J. M. A. S. & Samarawickrama V. A. P. (2006), A new species of the genus Cophotis (SQUAMATA: AGAMIDAE) from Sri lanka, Russian Journal of Herpetology Vol. 13, No. 3, 2006, pp. 207 – 214

Somaweera R. & Somaweera N. (2009) Lizards of Sri Lanka: A Colour Guide with Field Keys, Chimaira, Chimaira, Germany

Taylor, E. H. (1950). Ceylonese Lizards of the Family Scincidae. University of Kansas Science Bulletin,
33 (13): 481-518.

Taylor, E. H. 1953. A Review of the Lizards of Ceylon. University of Kansas Science Bulletin. 35 (12):
1525-1585.

Wickramasinghe L. J. M. (2006). A new species of Cnemaspis (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Sri Lanka. Zootaxa, 1369; 19-33.

Wickramasinghe, L. J. M., Rodrigo, R.,Dayawansa, N. and Jayantha, U. L. D. (2007). Two new species of Lankascincus (Squamata: Scincidae) from Sripada Sanctuary (PeakWilderness), in Sri Lanka. Zootaxa, 1612: 1–24.

Wickramasinghe L.J.M. & Munindradasa D. A. I. (2007) Review of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Sauria: Gekkonidae) in Sri Lanka with the description of five new species Zootaxa 1490 63 pp.;

Wickramasinghe, L.J.M., N. Wickramasinghe & L. Kariyawasam (2011). Taxonomic status of the arboreal Skink Lizard Dasia halianus (Haly & Nevill, 1887) in Sri Lanka and the redescription of  Dasia subcaeruleum (Boulenger, 1891) from India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(8): 1961–1974.



Wickramasinghe L. J. Mendis 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of the Reptile Fauna in Sri Lanka. In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D.K. & S. Wijesundara Eds.,Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 99-113 pp

Zeeshan A. Mirza,1 Saunak Pal,2 and Rajesh V. Sanap, NOTES ON A GROUND GECKO Geckoella cf. collegalensis BEDDOME, 1870 (SQUAMATA, SAURIA, GEKKONIDAE) FROM INDIA, Russian Journal of Herpetology Vol. 17, No. 1, 2010, pp. 8 – 14