Amphibians of Sri Lanka

A recent acceleration of researches on Amphibian of Sri Lanka, especially during past decade has resulted of describing several new species and there are several more to be described. It is believe that total number of species would be around 140 with the conclusion of on going taxonomic researches ( Meegaskumbura et al. 2002 ). As at now 120 amphibian species are known from Sri Lanka and 107 of them are endemic. But 20 out of them (all endemic) are considered as extinct since recent surveys conducted on amphibians have not come across living specimens of those species from the island ). So that total number of extant and described species is stand as  100 (87 of them are endemic) as at June 2019.

Scientific name
NCS
Family: Bufonidae
1
Adenomus kandianus
CR
2
VU
3
Duttaphrynus kotagamai
EN
4
LC
5
Duttaphrynus noellerti
EN
6
Duttaphrynus scaber
VU
Family: Dicroglossidae
7
LC
8
LC
9
Hoplobatrachus crassus
LC
10
Hoplobatrachus tigerinus
DD
11
Minervarya greenii
EN
12
VU
13
LC
14
EN
15
Nannophrys guentheri
EX
16
Nannophrys marmorata
CR
17
Nannophrys naeyakai
CR
18
Sphaerotheca breviceps
LC
19
Sphaerotheca rolandae
LC
Family: Microhylidae
20
Microhyla karunaratnei
EN
21
Microhyla mihintalei

22
LC
23
CR
24
Uperodon nagaoi
EN
25
Uperodon obscurus
VU
26
Uperodon palmatus
CR
27
Uperodon rohani
LC
28
Uperodon systoma
LC
29
LC
Family: Nyctibatrachidae
30
Lankanectes corrugatus
VU
31
Lankanectes pera

Family: Ranidae
32
LC
33
Indosylvirana serendipi

34
NT
Family: Rhacophoridae
35
LC
36
LC
37
Polypedates ranwellai
CR
38
Pseudophilautus abundus
EN
39
Pseudophilautus adspersus
EX
40
EN
41
Pseudophilautus asankai
CR
42
Pseudophilautus auratus
EN
43
Pseudophilautus bambaradeniyai

44
Pseudophilautus caeruleus
CR
45
EN
46
Pseudophilautus conniffae
NT
47
EN
48
Pseudophilautus dayawansai   

49
Pseudophilautus decoris
CR
50
Pseudophilautus dilmah 

51
Pseudophilautus dimbullae
EX
52
Pseudophilautus eximius
EX
53
Pseudophilautus extirpo
EX
54
Pseudophilautus femoralis
CR
55
VU
56
Pseudophilautus folicola
VU
57
Pseudophilautus frankenbergi
CR
58
CR
59
Pseudophilautus hallidayi
EN
60
Pseudophilautus halyi
EX
61
Pseudophilautus hankeni
CR
62
Pseudophilautus hoffmanni    
CR
63
Pseudophilautus hoipolloi      
EN
64
Pseudophilautus hypomelas
EX
65
Pseudophilautus jagathgunawardanai

66
Pseudophilautus karunarathnai

67
Pseudophilautus leucorhinus  
EX
68
Pseudophilautus limbus  
CR
69
Pseudophilautus lunatus 
CR
70
CR
71
Pseudophilautus maia
EX
72
Pseudophilautus malcolmsmithi
EX
73
CR
74
Pseudophilautus mittermeieri
CR
75
Pseudophilautus mooreorum
CR
76
Pseudophilautus nanus
EX
77
Pseudophilautus nasutus
EX
78
Pseudophilautus nemus
CR
79
Pseudophilautus newtonjayawardanei       

80
Pseudophilautus ocularis
CR
81
Pseudophilautus oxyrhynchus
EX
82
Pseudophilautus papillosus
CR
83
Pseudophilautus pardus
EX
84
Pseudophilautus pleurotaenia
CR
85
Pseudophilautus poppiae
CR
86
NT
87
Pseudophilautus procax
CR
88
Pseudophilautus puranappu

89
Pseudophilautus regius
VU
90
Pseudophilautus reticulatus
EN
91
Pseudophilautus rugatus
EX
92
CR
93
Pseudophilautus samarakoon

94
EN
95
Pseudophilautus schmarda
CR
96
Pseudophilautus schneideri    
EN
97
Pseudophilautus semiruber
DD
98
EN
99
Pseudophilautus silvaticus
EN
100
Pseudophilautus simba
CR
101
Pseudophilautus singu
EN
102
Pseudophilautus sirilwijesundarai

103
Pseudophilautus sordidus
VU
104
Pseudophilautus steineri
CR
105
Pseudophilautus stellatus
EX
106
Pseudophilautus stictomerus
EN
107
Pseudophilautus stuarti
CR
108
Pseudophilautus tanu
EN
109
Pseudophilautus temporalis
EX
110
Pseudophilautus variabilis
EX
111
EN
112
Pseudophilautus zal
EX
113
Pseudophilautus zimmeri
EX
114
Pseudophilautus zorro
CR
115
EN
116
Taruga fastigo
CR
117
Taruga longinasus
EN
Family: Ichthyophiidae
118
Ichthyophis glutinosus
VU
119
Ichthyophis orthoplicatus
EN
120
Ichthyophis pseudangularis
EN



CR Critically Endangered
VU Vulnerable
LC Least Concern
EN Endangered
EX Extinct
NT Near Threatened

References:

Meegaskumbura, M., F. Bossuyt, R. Pethiyagoda, K. Manamendra-Arachchi, M. Bahir, M.C. Milinkovitch & C.J. Schneider, 2002. Sri Lanka: an amphibian hotspot. Science, 298:379.

Fernando, S. S., L.J.M Wickramasingha &  R.K. Rodirigo. 2007. A new species of endemic frog belonnging to genus Nannophrys Gunther, 1869 (Anura: Dicroglossinae ) From Sri Lanka. Zootaxa 1403:55-68

Manamendra-Arachchi, K. & Pethiyagoda, R. (1998) A synopsis of the Sri Lankan Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura) with description of new species. Journal of South Asian Natural History, 3, 213–248

Manamendra-Arachchi, K.; Pethiyagoda, R. 2005: The Sri Lankan shrub frogs of the genus Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Ranidae: Rhacophorinae), with description of 27 new species. Raffles bulletin of zoology, supplement 12: 163–303.

Meegaskumbura, M. & K. Manamendra-Arachchi (2005). Descriptions of eight new species of shrub frogs (Ranidae: Rhacophorinae: Philautus) from Sri Lanka. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement 12: 305–338.

Meegaskumbura M., K. Manamendra-Arachch, C.J. Schneider & R. Pethiyagoda. 2007. New species amongst Sri Lanka's extinct shrub frogs (Amphibia : Rhacophoridae: Philautus ). Zootaxa 1397:1-15

Meegaskumbura M., K. Manamendra-Arachchi & R. Pethiyagoda 2009. Two new species of shrub frogs (Rhacophoridae: Philautus) from the lowlands of Sri Lanka. Zootaxa, 2122: 51-68

Meegaskumbura M., K. Manamendra-Arachchi 2011. Two new species of shrub frogs (Rhacophoridae: Pseudophilautus) from Sri Lanka Zootaxa, 2747: 1–18

Pethiyagoda R., K. Mamamendra-Arachchi, M.M. Bahir & M. Meegaskumbura. 2006. Sri lankan Amphibians: diversity, uniqueness and conservation. IN: The fauna of Sri lanka: status of taxonomy, research and conservation. IUCN, Sri lanka: 125-133

Madhava Meegaskumbura, Suyama Meegaskumbura, Gayan Bowatte, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda, James Hanken & Christopher J. Schneider 2010. Taruga (Anura: Hacophoridae), A New Genus of foam-nesting tree frogs endemic to Sri Lanka. Cey. J. Sci. (Bio. Sci.) 39 (2): 75-94.

Wickramasinghe M.L. J., Vidanapathirana D.R. & Wickramasinghe N., 2012. Back from the dead: The world’s rarest toad Adenomus kandianus rediscovered in Sri Lanka Zootaxa, 3347: 63–68 

de Silva, Anslem. 2009. Amphibians of Sri Lanka: A Photographic Guide to common frogs Toads and caecilians. Published by the author.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K. & R. Pethiyagoda. 2006. Sri Lankawe ubayajeewin (Texi in Sinhala) .WHT publication 9pvt) Ltd. Colombo.

Manamendra-Arachchi K. &  Meegaskumbura M. 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of Amphibians in Sri Lanka  In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D.K. & S. Wijesundara Eds., Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 88-99 pp

Meegaskumbura M., Manamendra-Arachchi K., Bowatte G. & Meegaskumbura S. 2012 Rediscovery of Pseudophilautus semiruber, a diminutive shrub frog (Rhacophoridae: Pseudophilautus) from Sri Lanka Zootaxa 3229: 58–68pp.

IUCN Sri Lanka & the Ministry of Environmental and Natural Resources. 2007. The 2007 Red List of Threatened Fauna and Flora of Sri Lanka. Colombo.

Wickramasinghe, L. J. M., Munindradasa, D. A. I. & Fernando, P., (2012). A new species of Polypedates Tschudi (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae) from Sri Lanka. Zootaxa, 3498, pp.63–80.

Wickramasinghe, L.J.M., D.R. Vidanapathirana, M.D.G. Rajeev, S.C. Ariyarathne, A.W.A. Chanaka, L.L.D. Priyantha, I.N. Bandara & N. Wickramasinghe (2013). Eight new species of Pseudophilautus (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae) from Sripada World Heritage Site (Peak Wilderness), a local amphibian hotspot in Sri Lanka. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(4): 3789–3920; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3099.3789-920

Senevirathne G, Samarawickrama VAMPK, Wijayathilaka N, Manamendra-Arachchi K, Bowatte G, Samarawickrama DRNS, and Meegaskumbura M. 2018. A new frog species from rapidly dwindling cloud forest streams of Sri Lanka—Lankanectes pera (Anura, Nyctibatrachidae). Zootaxa. 4461: 519–538.

Jayawardena, B., Senevirathne, G., Wijayathilaka, N., Ukuwela, K., Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Megaskumbura, M., 2017 Species boundaries,biogeography and evolutionarily significant units in dwarf toads: Duttaphrynus scaber and D. atukoralei (Bufonidae: Adenominae). Ceylon Journal         of Science, 46: 79-87.

Meegaskumbura, M., Senevirathne, G., Wijayathilaka, N., Jayawardena, B., Bandara, C., Manamendra- Arachchi, K. and Pethiyagoda, P., 2015 Sri Lankan torrent toads (Bufonidae: Adenominae: Adenomus) species boundaries assessed using multiple criteria Zootaxa, 3911: 245-261.

Gabadage, D.E., de Silva, A., Botejue, W.M.S., Bahir, M.M., Surasinghe, T.D., Madawala, M.B., Amarasinghe, A.A.T., Karunarathna, D.M.S.S., 2014 On the discovery of second living population of Adenomus kandianus (Günther, 1872) from Sri Lanka: with the bioecology, and detailed redescription to the species. Herpetotropicos,10: 37-49.

Karunarathna, .S., Henkanaththegedara, S., Gabadage, D., Botejue, M., Madawala, M., Surasinghe, T.D., 2016 Ecology and demography of the Critically Endangered Kandian torrent toad Adenomus kandianus: a long-lost endemic species of Sri Lanka. Oryx, 52: 619-626.

Meegaskumbura, Madhava & Wijayathilaka, Nayana & Abayalath, Nirodha & Senevirathne, Gayani. (2015). Realities of rarity: climatically and ecologically restricted, critically endangered Kandian Torrent Toads (Adenomus kandianus) breed en masse. PeerJ preprints. 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1575v1.

GARG, SONALI & Senevirathne, Gayani & Wijayathilaka, Nayana & Phuge, Samadhan & DEUTI, KAUSHIK & Manameendraarchchi, Kelum & Meegaskumbura, Madhava & S D, Biju. (2018). An integrative taxonomic review of the South Asian microhylid genus Uperodon. Zootaxa. 4384. 1. 10.11646/zootaxa.4384.1.1. 

S D, Biju & Garg, Sonali & Mahony, Stephen & Wijayathilaka, Nayana & Senevirathne, Gayani & Meegaskumbura, Madhava. (2014). DNA barcoding, phylogeny and systematics of Golden-backed frogs (Hylarana, Ranidae) of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot, with the description of seven new species. Contributions to zoology Bijdragen tot de dierkunde. 83. 269-335. 

https://sites.google.com/site/srilankaamphibians/
http://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/index.php


4 comments:

  1. Hi Bushana, I appreciate adding this very informative page to your blog very much.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thanks Amila!!
    As far as I am aware above checklist is up to date. I used all available sources for me to compile it and it will be updating time to time with latest findings. I may try to add similar pages for other fauna groups whenever I get time to attend on them.

    ReplyDelete
  3. This is a very good update since we left the ZOO dept in 2002. Thank You.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Hi Bushana, This is good work. I don't see any point on listing references, Literature cited and References; perhaps you can cite the rediscovered papers in the text and others are there with the species names, then you have to include the all other original species descriptions under references or literature cited.

    ReplyDelete