Amphibians of Sri Lanka

A recent acceleration of researches on Amphibian of Sri Lanka, especially during past decade has resulted of describing several new species and there are several more to be described. It is believe that total number of species would be around 140 with the conclusion of on going taxonomic researches ( Meegaskumbura et al. 2002 ). As at now 119 amphibian species are known from Sri Lanka and 103 of them are endemic. But 20 out of them (all endemic) are considered as extinct since recent surveys conducted on amphibians have not come across living specimens of those species from the island ). So that total number of extant and described species is stand as  99 (83 of them are endemic) as at May 2013.


Class: Amphibia Gray1825


   Order: Anura Fischer von Waldheim1813


       Family: Bufonidae Gray1825


          Genus: Adenomus Cope1861

1
Species: Adenomus dasi Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda, 1998
CR
2
Species: Adenomus kandianus(Günther, 1872)
CR
3
VU

          Genus: Duttaphrynus Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing,       Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler2006

4
Species: Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Bogert and Senanayake1966)
NT
5
Species: Duttaphrynus kotagamai (Fernando and Dayawansa1994)
EN
6
LC
7
Species: Duttaphrynus noellerti (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda1998)
EN
8
Species: Duttaphrynus scaber (Schneider1799)
VU

Family: Dicroglossidae Anderson1871


  Subfamily: Dicroglossinae Anderson1871


    Genus: Euphlyctis Fitzinger1843

9
LC
10
LC

    Genus: Fejervarya Bolkay1915

11
Species: Fejervarya greenii (Boulenger1905)
EN
12
Species: Fejervarya kirtisinghei (Manamendra-Arachchi and Gabadage,1996)
VU
13
LC

    Genus: Hoplobatrachus Peters1863

14
Species: Hoplobatrachus crassus (Jerdon1854)
LC
15
Species: Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin1802)
DD

    Genus: Nannophrys Günther1869

16
EN
17
Species: Nannophrys guentheri Boulenger, 1882
EX
18
Species: Nannophrys marmorata (Kirtisinghe1946)
CR
19
Species: Nannophrys naeyakai (Fernando, Wickramasingha, and Rodrigo,2007)
CR

    Genus: Sphaerotheca Günther1859

20
Species: Sphaerotheca breviceps (Schneider1799)
LC
21
Species: Sphaerotheca rolandae (Dubois1983)
LC

Family: Microhylidae Günther1858


  Subfamily: Microhylinae Günther1858


    Genus: Kaloula Gray1831

22
LC

    Genus: Microhyla Tschudi1838

23
Species: Microhyla karunaratnei  (Fernando and Siriwardhane1996)
EN
24
LC
25
Species: Microhyla rubra (Jerdon1854)
LC
26
Species: Microhyla zeylanica (Parker and Osman-Hill1949)
CR

     Genus: Ramanella (Rao and Ramanna1925)

27
Species: Ramanella nagaoi (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda2001)
EN
28
Species: Ramanella obscura (Günther1864)
VU
29
Species: Ramanella palmata (Parker1934)
CR
30
Species: Ramanella variegata (Stoliczka1872)
LC

     Genus: Uperodon Duméril and Bibron1841

31
Species: Uperodon systoma (Schneider1799)
LC

Family: Ranidae Rafinesque1814


     Genus: Hylarana Tschudi1838

32
LC
33
Species: Hylarana aurantiaca (Boulenger1904)
EN
34
NT

Family: Nyctibatrachidae Blommers-Schlösser1993


     Genus: Lankanectes Dubois and Ohler2001

35
Species: Lankanectes corrugatus (Peters1863)
VU

Family: Rhacophoridae Hoffman1932


  Subfamily: Rhacophorinae Hoffman1932


     Genus: Pseudophilautus

36
Species: Pseudophilautus abundus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda2005)
EN
37
Species: Pseudophilautus adspersus (Günther, 1872)
EX
38
Species: Pseudophilautus alto (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
EN
39
Species: Pseudophilautus asankai (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda2005)
CR
40
Species: Pseudophilautus auratus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda2005)
EN
41
Species: Pseudophilautus bambaradeniyai (Wickramasinghe L.J.M. et.al.,  2013)

42
Species: Pseudophilautus caeruleus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda2005)
CR
43
EN
44
EN
45
Species: Pseudophilautus dayawansai (Wickramasinghe L.J.M. et.al.,  2013)

46
Species: Pseudophilautus decoris (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
CR
47
Species: Pseudophilautus dimbullae (Shreve, 1940)
EX
48
Species: Pseudophilautus eximius (Shreve, 1940)
EX
49
Species: Pseudophilautus extirpo (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
EX
50
Species: Pseudophilautus femoralis (Günther1864)
CR
51
VU
52
Species: Pseudophilautus folicola (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
VU
53
Species: Pseudophilautus frankenbergi (Meegaskumbura and Manamendra-Arachchi2005)
CR
54
Species: Pseudophilautus fulvus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
CR
55
Species: Pseudophilautus halyi (Boulenger, 1904)
EX
56
Species: Pseudophilautus hallidayi (Meegaskumbura and Manamendra-Arachchi2005)
EN
57
Species: Pseudophilautus hankeni (Meegaskumbura and Manamendra-Arachchi, 2011)
CR
58
Species: Pseudophilautus hoffmanni (Meegaskumbura and Manamendra-Arachchi2005)
CR
59
Species: Pseudophilautus hoipolloi (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda2005)
EN
60
Species: Pseudophilautus hypomelas (Günther, 1876)
EX
61
Species: Pseudophilautus jagathgunawardanai (Wickramasinghe L.J.M. et.al.,  2013)

62
Species: Pseudophilautus karunarathnai (Wickramasinghe L.J.M. et.al.,  2013)  

63
Species: Pseudophilautus leucorhinus (Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856)
EX
64
Species: Pseudophilautus limbus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
CR
65
Species: Pseudophilautus lunatus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
CR
66
Species: Pseudophilautus macropus (Günther1869)
CR
67
Species: Pseudophilautus maia (Meegaskumbura, Manamendra-Arachchi, Schneider, and Pethiyagoda, 2007)
EX
68
Species: Pseudophilautus malcolmsmithi (Ahl, 1927)
EX
69
Species: Pseudophilautus microtympanum (Günther1858)
CR
70
Species: Pseudophilautus mittermeieri (Meegaskumbura and Manamendra-Arachchi2005)
CR
71
Species: Pseudophilautus mooreorum (Meegaskumbura and Manamendra-Arachchi2005)
CR
72
Species: Pseudophilautus nanus (Günther, 1869)
EX
73
Species: Pseudophilautus nasutus (Günther, 1869)
EX
74
Species: Pseudophilautus nemus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
CR
75
Species: Pseudophilautus newtonjayawardanei (Wickramasinghe L.J.M. et.al.,  2013)   

76
Species: Pseudophilautus ocularis (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda2005)
CR
77
Species: Pseudophilautus oxyrhynchus (Günther, 1872)
EX
78
Species: Pseudophilautus papillosus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda2005)
CR
79
Species: Pseudophilautus pardus (Meegaskumbura, Manamendra-Arachchi, Schneider, and Pethiyagoda, 2007)
EX
80
Species: Pseudophilautus pleurotaenia (Boulenger1904)
CR
81
NT
82
Species: Pseudophilautus poppiae (Meegaskumbura and Manamendra-Arachchi2005)
CR
83
Species: Pseudophilautus procax (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
CR
84
Species: Pseudophilautus puranappu (Wickramasinghe L.J.M. et.al.,  2013)   

85
Species: Pseudophilautus regius (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
VU
86
Species: Pseudophilautus reticulatus (Günther1869)
EN
87
Species: Pseudophilautus rugatus (Ahl, 1927)
EX
88
Species: Pseudophilautus rus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
CR
89
Species: Pseudophilautus samarakoon (Wickramasinghe L.J.M. et.al.,  2013)   

90
EN
91
Species: Pseudophilautus schmarda (Kelaart1854)
CR
92
Species: Pseudophilautus schneideri(Meegaskumbura and Manamendra-Arachchi, 2011)
EN
93
Species: Pseudophilautus semiruber (Annandale1913)
DD
94
Species: Pseudophilautus silus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
EN
95
Species: Pseudophilautus silvaticus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda2005)
EN
96
Species: Pseudophilautus singu (Meegaskumbura, Manamendra-Arachchi, and Pethiyagoda2009)
EN
97
Species: Pseudophilautus simba (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
CR
98
Species: Pseudophilautus sirilwijesundarai (Wickramasinghe L.J.M. et.al.,  2013)    

99
Species: Pseudophilautus sordidus (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda2005)
VU
100
Species: Pseudophilautus stellatus (Kelaart, 1853)
CR(PE)
101
Species: Pseudophilautus steineri (Meegaskumbura and Manamendra-Arachchi2005)
CR
102
Species: Pseudophilautus stictomerus (Günther1876)
EN
103
Species: Pseudophilautus stuarti (Meegaskumbura and Manamendra-Arachchi2005)
CR
104
Species: Pseudophilautus tanu (Meegaskumbura, Manamendra-Arachchi, and Pethiyagoda2009)
EN
105
Species: Pseudophilautus temporalis (Günther, 1864)
EX
106
Species: Pseudophilautus variabilis (Günther, 1858)
EX
107
Species: Pseudophilautus viridis (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
EN
108
Species: Pseudophilautus zal (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
EX
109
Species: Pseudophilautus zimmeri (Ahl, 1927)
EX
110
Species: Pseudophilautus zorro (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda,2005)
CR

Genus: Polypedates Tschudi1838

111
LC
112
LC
113
Species: Polypedates ranwellai (Wickramasinghe, Munindrasasa & Fernando, 2012)
CR

Genus: Taruga Meegaskumbura2010

114
Species: Taruga eques (Günther1858)
EN
115
Species: Taruga fastigo (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda2001)
CR
116
Species: Taruga longinasus (Ahl1927)
EN

Order: Gymnophiona Müller1832


Family: Ichthyophiidae Taylor1968


Genus: Ichthyophis Fitzinger1826

117
Species: Ichthyophis glutinosus (Linnaeus1758)
VU
118
Species: Ichthyophis orthoplicatus (Taylor1965)
EN
119
Species: Ichthyophis pseudangularis (Taylor1965)
EN



Y V
CR Critically Endangered
VU Vulnerable
LC Least Concern
EN Endangered
EX Extinct
NT Near Threatened


*  Previously known as an extinct species (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda, 1998) Recently it was rediscovered by Wickramasinghe L.J.M. et.al. from Peak wilderness sanctuary (Wickramasinghe L.J.M. et.al, 2012) 

Literature cited:

Meegaskumbura, M., F. Bossuyt, R. Pethiyagoda, K. Manamendra-Arachchi, M. Bahir, M.C. Milinkovitch & C.J. Schneider, 2002. Sri Lanka: an amphibian hotspot. Science, 298:379.

Fernando, S. S., L.J.M Wickramasingha &  R.K. Rodirigo. 2007. A new species of endemic frog belonnging to genus Nannophrys Gunther, 1869 (Anura: Dicroglossinae ) From Sri Lanka. Zootaxa 1403:55-68

Manamendra-Arachchi, K. & Pethiyagoda, R. (1998) A synopsis of the Sri Lankan Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura) with description of new species. Journal of South Asian Natural History, 3, 213–248

Manamendra-Arachchi, K.; Pethiyagoda, R. 2005: The Sri Lankan shrub frogs of the genus Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Ranidae: Rhacophorinae), with description of 27 new species. Raffles bulletin of zoology, supplement 12: 163–303.

Meegaskumbura, M. & K. Manamendra-Arachchi (2005). Descriptions of eight new species of shrub frogs (Ranidae: Rhacophorinae: Philautus) from Sri Lanka. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement 12: 305–338.

Meegaskumbura M., K. Manamendra-Arachch, C.J. Schneider & R. Pethiyagoda. 2007. New species amongst Sri Lanka's extinct shrub frogs (Amphibia : Rhacophoridae: Philautus ). Zootaxa 1397:1-15

Meegaskumbura M., K. Manamendra-Arachchi & R. Pethiyagoda 2009. Two new species of shrub frogs (Rhacophoridae: Philautus) from the lowlands of Sri Lanka. Zootaxa, 2122: 51-68

Meegaskumbura M., K. Manamendra-Arachchi 2011. Two new species of shrub frogs (Rhacophoridae: Pseudophilautus) from Sri Lanka Zootaxa, 2747: 1–18

Pethiyagoda R., K. Mamamendra-Arachchi, M.M. Bahir & M. Meegaskumbura. 2006. Sri lankan Amphibians: diversity, uniqueness and conservation. IN: The fauna of Sri lanka: status of taxonomy, research and conservation. IUCN, Sri lanka: 125-133

Madhava Meegaskumbura, Suyama Meegaskumbura, Gayan Bowatte, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Rohan Pethiyagoda, James Hanken & Christopher J. Schneider 2010. Taruga (Anura: Hacophoridae), A New Genus of foam-nesting tree frogs endemic to Sri Lanka. Cey. J. Sci. (Bio. Sci.) 39 (2): 75-94.

Wickramasinghe M.L. J., Vidanapathirana D.R. & Wickramasinghe N., 2012. Back from the dead: The world’s rarest toad Adenomus kandianus rediscovered in Sri Lanka Zootaxa, 3347: 63–68 

References:


de Silva, Anslem. 2009. Amphibians of Sri Lanka: A Photographic Guide to common frogs Toads and caecilians. Published by the author.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K. & R. Pethiyagoda. 2006. Sri Lankawe ubayajeewin (Texi in Sinhala) .WHT publication 9pvt) Ltd. Colombo.

Manamendra-Arachchi K. &  Meegaskumbura M. 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of Amphibians in Sri Lanka  In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D.K. & S. Wijesundara Eds., Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 88-99 pp

Meegaskumbura M., Manamendra-Arachchi K., Bowatte G. & Meegaskumbura S. 2012 Rediscovery of Pseudophilautus semiruber, a diminutive shrub frog (Rhacophoridae: Pseudophilautus) from Sri Lanka Zootaxa 3229: 58–68pp.

IUCN Sri Lanka & the Ministry of Environmental and Natural Resources. 2007. The 2007 Red List of Threatened Fauna and Flora of Sri Lanka. Colombo.

Wickramasinghe, L. J. M., Munindradasa, D. A. I. & Fernando, P., (2012). A new species of Polypedates Tschudi (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae) from Sri Lanka. Zootaxa, 3498, pp.63–80.

Wickramasinghe, L.J.M., D.R. Vidanapathirana, M.D.G. Rajeev, S.C. Ariyarathne, A.W.A. Chanaka, L.L.D. Priyantha, I.N. Bandara & N. Wickramasinghe (2013). Eight new species of Pseudophilautus (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae) from Sripada World Heritage Site (Peak Wilderness), a local amphibian hotspot in Sri Lanka. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(4): 3789–3920; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3099.3789-920


http://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/index.php


4 comments:

  1. Hi Bushana, I appreciate adding this very informative page to your blog very much.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thanks Amila!!
    As far as I am aware above checklist is up to date. I used all available sources for me to compile it and it will be updating time to time with latest findings. I may try to add similar pages for other fauna groups whenever I get time to attend on them.

    ReplyDelete
  3. This is a very good update since we left the ZOO dept in 2002. Thank You.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Hi Bushana, This is good work. I don't see any point on listing references, Literature cited and References; perhaps you can cite the rediscovered papers in the text and others are there with the species names, then you have to include the all other original species descriptions under references or literature cited.

    ReplyDelete