Snakes of Sri Lanka


According to the published literature on snake fauna of Sri Lanka, a total of 103 snake species occur in the island, of which 49 are endemic. Out of above 103 species 88 snakes inhabit inland (terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal or freshwater) eco systems while 15 sea snakes are also to date recorded from the Indian Ocean around the island. However status of following species is doubtful and needs to be examined with more samples.


1) Argyrogena fasciolata         2) Dendrelaphis oliveri        3) Dryocalamus gracilis        4) Typhlops ceylonicus
5) Typhlops lankaensis           6) Typhlops malcolmi           7) Typhlos tenebrarum         8) Typhlops veddae
9) Typhlops violaceus            10) Platyplectrurus madurensis                                            11) Rhinophis dorsimaculatus
12) Rhinophis porrectus         13) Uropeltis ruhunae           14) Enhydris enhydris



Family: Acrochordidae (File/Wart Snakes)

1
Species: Wart  Snake/Cloth Snake/Diya-maha goda-maha/Diya goya/Redi naya (Acrochordus granulatus Schneider, 1799 )
VU

Family: Boidae (Boas)

2
Species: Common Sand  Boa/Vali Pimbura/Kota pimbura (Gongylophis conicus  Schneider, 1801)
VU

Family: Pythonidae (Pythons)

3
Species: Indian Rock Python/Pimbura (Python molurus molurus Linnaeus, 1758)
LC

Family: Cylindrophidae (Pipe Snakes)

4
Species: Sri Lanka Pipe Snake/Depath Naya/Wataulla (Cylindrophis maculatus Linnaeus, 1758)
NT

Family: Natricidae

5
Species: Buff-striped Keelback/Aharakukka (Amphiesma stolatum Linnaeus 1758)
LC
6
Species: Boie's Roughside/Lemadilla (Aspidura brachyorrhos Boie, 1827)
VU
7
Species: Cope's Roughside/Kalumadilla (Aspidura copei Gunther 1864)
DD
8
Species: Deraniyagala's Roughside/Kandumadilla (Aspidura deraniyagalae Gans & Fetcho, 1982)
CR
9
Species: Drummondhay's Roughside/Ketivalmadilla (Aspidura drummondhayi Boulenger, 1904)
EN
10
Species: Gunther's Roughside/Kudamadilla (Aspidura guentheri Ferguson 1876)
NT
11
EN
12
Species: Olive Keelback/Diyavarna/Kadola(Atretium schistosum Daudin, 1803)
LC
13
EN
14
Species: Green Keelback/Green Cobra/Palabariya (Macropisthodon plumbicolor Cantor 1839)
NT
15
LC
16
LC

Family: Homalopsidae

17
Species: Dog-faced Water Snake/Kundiya kaluva (Cerberus rynchops rynchops Schneider, 1799)
LC
18
Species: Glossy Marsh Snake/Prevostge diyabariya (Gerarda prevostianus Eydoux & Gervais, 1837)
EN
19
Species: Rainbow Mud Snake/Dedunu Diyabriya (Enhydris enhydris Schneder 1799)
DD

Family: Colubridae (Colubrid Snakes)

20
LC
21
Species: Brown Vine Snake/Henakandaya (Ahaetulla pulverulenta Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854)
LC
22
Species: Banded Racer/Val garadiya (Argyrogena fasciolata Shaw 1802)
DD
23
Species: Barnes's Cat Snake/Panduru mapila (Boiga barnesii Gunther, 1869) 
VU
24
Species: Beddom's Cat Snake/Kaha mapila (Boiga beddomei Wall, 1909)
NT
25
Species: Sri Lanka Cat Snake/Nidi mapila (Boiga ceylonensis Gunther, 1858)
LC
26
Species: Forsten's Cat Snake/Naga mapila/Le Mapila (Boiga forsteni Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854)
NT
27
Species: Common Indian Cat Snake/Raan mapila (Boiga trigonata trigonata Schneider, 1802)
LC
28
Species: Sri Lanka Wolf Snake/Dara karavala (Cercaspis carinata Kuhl, 1820)
EN
29
Species: Ornate Flying Snake/Polmal karavala/Malsara (Chrysopelea ornata Shaw 1802)
VU
30
Species: Sr Lanka Flying Snake/Dangaradanda (Chrysopelea taprobanica Smith, 1943)
LC
31
Species: Trinket Snake/Katakaluva/Muduhabara (Coeloganthus helena Daudin, 1803)
LC
32
NT
33
Species: Striped-tailed Bronze back?Viree Haldanda (Dendrelaphis caudolineolatus Gunther, 1869)
VU
34
Species: Oliver's Bronze Back/Oliverge haldanda (Dendrelaphis oliveri Taylor, 1950)
DD
35
LC
36
Species: Common Bronze back/ Turu haldanda (Dendrelaphis tristis Daudin, 1803)
LC
37
Species: Scares Bridal Snake/Gunther's slender bridal snake/Meegata karavala (Dryocalamus gracilis Gunther, 1864)
DD
38
Species: Common Bridal Snake/Gata Karavala (Dryocalamus nympha Daudin, 1803)
LC
39
Species: Black-Spined Snake/Slender mould snake/Kurunkaravala/Rath karavala (Haplocercus ceylonensis Gunther 1858)
EN
40
Species: Reed Snake/Punbariya (Liopeltis calamaria Gunther, 1858)
NT
41
Species: Common Wolf Snake/Alu Radanakaya (Lycodon aulicus Linnaeus, 1758)
LC
42
LC
43
LC
44
Species: Common Banded Kukri Snake/Arani Datkatiya (Oligodon arnensis Shaw 1802)
LC
45
Species: Templeton's  Kukri Snake/Kabara Datakatiya (Oligodon calamarius Linnaeus, 1758)
EN
46
LC
47
Species: Russell's Kukri Snake (Oligodon taeniolata Jerdon 1853)
LC

               Variegated Kukri Snake/Viree Datkatiya (Oligodon taeniolata ceylonicus Wall, 1921)


               Indian Streaked Kukri Snake/Pulli Datkatiya (Oligodon taeniolata fasciatus Gunther, 1864)

48
LC
49
Species: Jerdon's Polyodent/Black-headed Snake (Sibynophis subpunctatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854)
NT

            Jerdon's Polyodent/Black-headed Snake/Dathigomaraya (Sibynophis subpunctatus ceylonicus de Silva, 1969 )


Family: Elapidae (Kraits, Coral Snakes & Cobras)

50
Species: Common Indian Krait/Tel Karavala/Magamaruwa (Bungarus caeruleus Schneider, 1801)
LC
51
Species: Sri Lankan Krait (Bungarus ceylonicus Gunther 1864)
VU

           Sri Lankan Krait/Mudu karawala (Bungarus ceylonicus ceylonicus Gunther 1864)


           Sri Lankan Krait/Hath karawala (Bungarus ceylonicus karavala Deraniyagala 1955)

52
Species: Red-bellied Coral Snake/Bada rathu Depathkaluwa (Calliophis hawmatoetron Smith et al., 2008)
LC
53
Species: Slender Coral Snake/Depathkaluva (Calliophis melanurus Shaw, 1802)
LC
54


Family: (Hydrophiidae (Sea Snakes)

55
Species: Stoke's  Sea Snake (Astrotia stokesii Gray & Stokes, 1846)
LC
56
Species: Hook Nosed/Beak  Sea Snake (Enhydrina schistosus Daudin 1803)
LC
57
Species: Peter's Sea Snake (Hydrophis bituberculatus Peters, 1872)
DD
58
Species: Chitul/Annulated or Blue banded sea snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus Daudin, 1803)
LC
59
Species: Hydrophis fasciatus (Schneider, 1799)
LC
61
Species: Small-headed Sea Snake (Hydrophis gracilis Shaw, 1802)
LC
61
Species: Persian Gulf Sea Snake (Hydrophis lapemoides Gray, 1849)
LC
62
Species: Bombay Gulf/broad-banded sea snake (Hydrophis mamillaris Daudin, 1803) 
DD
63
Species: Gray's/Ornate Sea Snake (Hydrophis ornatus ornatus Gray, 1842)
LC
64
Species: Narrow-Banded/Yelloe Sea Snake (Hydrophis spiralis Shaw, 1802)
LC
65
Species: Gunther's/Collared/Narrow-necked Sea Snake (Hydrophis stricticollis Gunther, 1864)
DD
66
Species: Jerdon's Sea Snake (Kerilia jerdonii jerdonii Gray, 1849)
LC
67
Species: Shaw's/Short Sea Snake (Lapemis curtus Shaw, 1802)
LC
68
Species: Yellow-bellied Sea Snake (Pelamis platurus Linnaeus, 1766)
LC
69
pecies: Viperine Sea Snake/Sea Viper (Praescutata viperina Schmidt, 1852)
LC

Family: Typhlopidae (Worm Snakes)

70
Species: Common/Russel's Blind Snake/Brahmny worm snake/Dumutu kanaulla (Ramphotyphlops braminus Daudin, 1803)
LC
71
Species: Smith's Blind Snake/Ceylon Worm Snake/Smithge Kanaulla (Typhlops ceylonicus Smith, 1943)
DD
72
Species: Lanka  Blind/Worm Snake/Lak Kanaulla (Typhlops lankaensis Taylor, 1947)
CR
73
Species: Pied Worm/Blind Snake/Kabara Kanaulla (Typhlops leucomelas Boulenger, 1890)
CR
74
Species: Malcolm's  Blind/Worm Snake/Malcomge Kanaulla (Typhlops malcolmi Taylor, 1947)
DD
75
Species: Jan's  Blind/Worm Snake/Heen Kanaulla (Typhlops mirus Jan & sordelli, 1860)
CR
76
Species: Stoliczka's Blind Snake/Slender Worm Snake/Stoliczkasge Heen Kanaulla (Typhlops porrectus Stoliczka, 1871)
EN
77
Species: Taylor's Blind Snake/Taylorge Kanaulla (Typhlos tenebrarum Taylor 1947)  
DD
78
Species: Veddha's Blind/Worm Snake Veddage Kanaulla (Typhlops veddae Taylor, 1947)
DD
79
Species: Violet Blind/Worm Snake/Dam kanaulla (Typhlops violaceus Taylor, 1947)
DD

Family: Uropeltidae (Sheildtails)

80
Species: Madurai sheildtails/Madurashi Bimulla (Platyplectrurus madurensis Beddome, 1877)
DD
81
Species: Large Shield Tail/Maha Bimulla (Pseudotyphlops philippinus Muller 1832)
EN
82
Species: Blyth's Shield Tail?Gomara Thudulla (Rhinophis blythii Kellart 1853)
EN
83
Species: Orange Shield Tail/Thambapanni Walga Abaya (Rhinophis dorsimaculatus Deraniyagala, 1941)
DD
84
Species: Drummondhay's Shield Tail/Thapo Thudulla (Rhinophis drummondhayi Wall, 1921)
EN
85
Species: Erangaviraj's Sheildtail/Eranga Virajge Thudulla (Rhinophis erangaviraji Wikramasinghe et.al. 2009)
CR
86
Species: Hemprich's Sheildtail/Depath Thudulla (Rhinophis homolepis Hemprich, 1820)
EN
87
Species: Striped Rhinophis/Iri Thudulla (Rhinophis lineatus Gower and Maduwage, 2011)
CR
88
Species: Schneider's Sheildtail/Ul Thudulla (Rhinophis oxyrynchus Schneider, 1801)
LC
89
Species: Cuvier's Sheildtail/Cuvierge Walga Abaya (Rhinophis philippinus Cuvier, 1829)
EN
90
Species: Willey's Sheildtail/Dig Thudulla (Rhinophis porrectus Wall, 1921)
DD
91
Species: Muller's Sheildtail/Thit Thudulla (Rhinophis punctatus Muller, 1832)
DD
92
Species: Deraniyagala's Shield Tail/Deraniyagalage Walga Abaya (Rhinophis tricoloratus Deraniyagala, 1975)
CR
93
Species: Zigzag Rhinophis/Zigzag Thudulla (Rhinophis zigzag Gower and Maduwage, 2011)
CR
94
Species: Gray's Shield Tail/Earth Snake/Kalu Wakatulla (Uropeltis melanogaster Gray, 1858)
EN
95
Species: Phillips's Shield Tail/Earth Snake/Iri Wakatulla (Uropeltis phillipsi Nicholls, 1929)
EN
96
Species: Sourthern Earth Snake/Ruhunu Wakatulla (Uropeltis ruhunae Deraniyagala, 1954)
DD

Family: Viperidae (Vipers)

97
LC
98
Species: South Indian Saw-scale Viper/Vali Polonga (Echis carinatus carinatus Schneider, 1801)
VU
99
LC
100
Species: Highland Hump-nosed Pit Viper/Kandukara Mukalan telissa (Hypnale nepa Laurenti, 1768)
EN
101
Species: Lowland Hump-nosed Pit Viper/Pahatharata Mukalantelissa (Hypnale zara Gray, 1849) 
VU
102
Species: Amal's Hump-nosed Pit Viper/Amalge Thelissa (Hypnale spp 'amal' maduwage et.al. 2009)
CR
103
LC


References & Literature cited: 

Das, I & Anslem de Silva. 2005. Photographic guide to snakes and other reptiles of Sri Lanka. New Holland Publishers, UK ltd.


de Silva, Anslem & Jinasena Jayantha 2009. Snakes of Sri Lanka A coloured atlas (with accounts on snakes in Archaeology, History, Folklore, Venomous Snakes and Snakebite). Vijitha Yapa publications Colombo.


de Silva, Anslem. 2006. Current status of the reptiles of Sri Lanka IN: Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. (Editor), Fauna of Sri Lanka: Status of taxonomy, research and conservation.  IUCN, Sri lanka 134-163 pp.


de Silva, P.H.D.H 1980. Snake Fauna of Sri Lanka with special reference to skull, dentition and venom in snakes. National Museums of Sri Lanka Colombo.


Deraniyagala, P.E.P. 1955. A Colored atlas of some vertebrates from Ceylon. Serpentoid Reptilia. Ceylon national Museums, Colombo


Gernot, Vogel  & David,  Patrick 2006. On the taxonomy of the Xenochrophis piscator complex (Serpentes, Natricidae). Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica. pp. 241-246.


Gower D.J. & Maduwage K. 2011 Two new species of Rhinophis Hemprich (Serpentes: Uropeltidae) from Sri Lanka Zootaxa 2881: 51–68pp.

IUCN Sri Lanka & the Ministry of Environmental and Natural Resources. 2007. The 2007 Red List of Threatened Fauna and Flora of Sri Lanka. Colombo.


Maduwage Kalana, Silva, A., Manamendra-Arachchi, K.& Pethiyagoda, R. 2009 A taxonomic revision of the South Asian hump-nosed pit vipers

(Squamata: Viperidae: Hypnale) Zootaxa 2232: 1–28 pp.


Manamendra-Arachchi, K. & Pethiyagoda, R. 2007 Boiga ranawanei, a junior synonym of Boiga beddomei. Zeylanica Vol 7 No 1 123-124pp.


Rooijen, Johan van, Vogel, Gernot 2008 An investigation into the taxonomy of Dendrelaphis tristis (Daudin, 1803): revalidation of Dipsas schokari (Kuhl, 1820) (Serpentes, Colubridae). Contributions to Zoology, 77 (1) 33-43.


Smith, E.N., Manamendra-Arachchi, K. &  & Soaweera R. 2008 A new species of coralsnake of the genus Calliophis (Squamata: Elapidae) from the Central Province of Sri Lanka Zootaxa 1847: 19–33 pp.


Samarawickrama, V. A. M. P. K. ,Samarawickrama, V. A. P.,Wijesena, N. M. & Orlov, Nikolai L.  2005 New Species of Genus Boiga (Serpentes: Colubridae: Colubrinae) From Sri Lanka. Russian Journal of Herpetology Vol. 12, No. 3, 2005, pp. 213 – 222.
Wall, Frank. 1921. Ophidia Taprobanica or Snakes of Ceylon, H.R. Cottle, Govt. Printer Colombo.
Wickramasinghe L.J.M., Vidanapathirana D.R. Wickramasinghe, N., Ranwella N. 2009 A new species of Rhinophis Hemprich, 1820 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Uropeltidae) from Rakwana massif, Sri Lanka Zootaxa 2044: 1–22.


http://www.srilankanreptiles.com/Downloads/snakes_of_sri_lanka.pdf


Endemic

EN Endangered
CR Critically Endangered
VU Vulnurable
NT Near threatened
DD Data Deficient