Freshwater Fishes of of Sri Lanka

According to the available literature on Sri Lankan freshwater fish fauna, there are 91 indigenous species occurs in inland water bodies of the country. 50 of those indigenous species are endemic to the Sri Lanka. There are 8 more marine and brackish water fish species that sometimes enter fresh water streams and at least another 24 of exotic species introduced accidentally or deliberately( For the inland fisheries industry and as mosquito larvivores by anti-malariya campaign).

Name E S
Family: Anguillidae(Freshwater Eels)
1 Species: Level-finned Eel/Mada Andha/Kalapu Andha/Kakkutu Andha(Anguilla bicolour - McClelland 1844) LC
2 Species: Long-finned Eel/Polmal Andha/Wiran Andha/Kabara Andha/Kaha Andha/Pulli Andha (Anguilla nebulosa - McClelland 1844) LC
Family: Cyprinidae(Carps)
3 Species: Large Silver Carplet/Gangiliya (Amblypharyngodon grandisquammis - Jordon & Starks 1917) Y EN
4 Species: Silver Carplet/Soraya (Amblypharyngodon melettinus - Valenciennes 1844) LC
5 Species: Ruhunu Laubuca/Ruhunu Kara-Adaya(Laubuca ruhuna - Pethiyagoda et. al. 2008) Y EN
6 Species: Blue Laubuca/Kara Adaya/Tatu Dandiya/Nil Kara-Adaya(Laubuca lankensis - Deraniyagala 1960) Y VU
7 Species: Varuna Laubuca/Varuna Kara-Adaya(Laubuca varuna - Pethiyagoda et. al. 2008) Y CR
8 Species: Knuckles Laubuca/Dumbara Kara-Adaya (Laubuca insularis - Pethiyagoda et. al. 2008) Y CR
9 Species: Knuckles danio/Dumbara Salaya/Damkola Salaya (Devario aequipinnatus McClelland 1839) Y CR
10 Species: Giant Danio/Rat Kailaya/Damkola Salaya (Devario malabaricus - Jerdon 1849) LC
11 Species: Barred Danio/Pathirana Salaya (Devario pathirana - Kottelat & Pethiyagoda 1990) Y CR
12 Species: Flying Barb/Rawul Dandiya/Tatu Dandiya (Esomus thermoicos - Valenciennes 1842) Y LC
13 Species: Stone Sucker/Gal Paandiya/Gal Paanduruwa (Garra ceylonensis - Bleeker 1863) Y VU
14 Species: Phillips's Garra/Gal Paandiya/Gal Paanduruwa (Garra phillipsi - Deraniyagala 1933) Y DD
15 Species: Common Labeo/Hiri kanaya/Gan Kanaya (Labeo dussumieri - Valenciennes 1842) LC
16 Species: Mountain Labeo/Gadaya/Loku Gadaya/Kalu Gadaya/Weli Gadaya (Labeo fisheri - Jordon & Starks 1917) Y CR
17 Species: Orange-fin Labeo/Thambalaya/Thambalavanna/Hiri Kanaya (Labeo lankae - Deraniyagala 1952) Y CR
18 Species: Kamalika's Barb/Mada Ipilla/Ipilikadaya/Mada Pethiya(Puntius kamalika - Silva et. al. 2008) Y EN
19 Species: Tic-tac-toe Barb/Depulliya/Thith Pethiya/Pothaya (Pethia melanomaculata - Deraniyagala 1956) Y VU
20 Species: Redfined Barb/Rathu-Waral Pothaya(Pethia reval - Meegaskumbura et. al. 2008) Y EN
21 Species: Four spot Long-snouted Barb/Silu tit Katupethiya (Punius tetraspilus Gunther 1868) Y DD
22 Species: Layard's Barb/Layardge Katu-Pethiya(Puntius layardi Gunther 1868) Y DD
23 Species: Kelum's barb/Red-Eye Barb/Rathu-es Kaupethiya (Puntius Kelumi - Pethiyagoda et. al. 2008) Y EN
24 Species: Asoka Barb/Asoka Pethiya/Ran Manissa (Systomus asoka - Kottelat & Pethiyagoda 1989) Y CE
25 Species: Bandula Barb/Jayanthiya/Bandula Pethiya (Pethiya bandula - Kottelat & Pethiyagoda 1991 ) Y CR
26 Species: Redside Barb/Ipilikadaya (Puntius bimaculatus  - Bleeker 1863) LC
27 Species: Swamp Barb/Kota Pethiya (Puntius thermalis  - Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844) Y LC
28 Species: Cuming's Barb/Pothaya/Depulliya (Pethiya cumingii - Gunther 1868) Y EN
29 Species: Long-snouted Barb/Katu Pethiya/Rathu Waral Pethiya/Katu Kuriya (Puntius dorsalis  - Jerdon 1849) LC
30 Species: Martenstyn's Barb/Dumbara Pethiya (Systomus martenstyni - Kottelat & Pethiyagoda 1991) Y CR
31 Species: Black Ruby Barb/Bulath Hapaya/Manamalaya (Pethiya nigrofasciatus - Gunther 1868) Y EN
32 Species: Black-lined Barb/Heetha Massa (Systomus pleurotaenia - Bleeker 1863) Y EN
33 Species: Olive Barb/Mas Pethiya (Systomus spilurus - Gunther 1868) Y DD
34 Species: Sinhala Barb/Filamented Barb/Damkola Pethiya (Dawkinsia singhala - Duncker 1912) Y LC
35 Species: Cherry Barb/Le Tiththaya (Puntius titteya - Deraniyagala 1929) Y EN
36 Species: Blotched filamented Barb/Dankuda Pethiya (Dawkinsia srilankensis - Senanayake 1985) Y CR
37 Species: Thibiri Barb/Pethiya (Systomus timbiri - Deraniyagala 1963) Y DD
38 Species: Silver Barb/Bandi Thiththaya/Podi Pethiya/Ipilikadaya (Puntius vittatus - Day 1865) LC
39 Species: Broad line Strip Rasbora/Dandiya/Kudamassa(Rasbora dandiya - Valenciennes 1844) LC
40 Species: Narrow line Rasbora/Kiri Dandiya/Kudamassa(Rasbora microcephalus  - Jerdon 1849) LC
41 Species: Armitage's Rasbora/Rakvana Dandiya(Rasbora armitagei - Silva A., Maduwage K. & Pethiyagoda R. 2010) Y CR
42 Species: Naggs's Rasbora/Belihuloya Dandiya(Rasbora naggsi - Silva A., Maduwage K. & Pethiyagoda R. 2010) Y CR
43 Species: Wipita Rasbora/Wilpita Dandiya (Rasbora wilpita - Kottelat & Pethiyagoda 1991) Y EN
44 Species: Black Line Golden Rasbora/Kaluiri Halmaldandiya (Rasboroides nigromaginata Meinken 1957) Y CR
45 Species: Horadandiya (Rasboroides atukorali - Deraniyagala 1943) VU
46 Species: Golden Rasbora/Halmal Dandiya/Halmal Thiththaya (Rasboroides vaterifloris - Deraniyagala 1930) Y EN
47 Species: Mahseer/Lealla/Horapolaya (Tor khudree - Sykes 1841) NT
Family: Cobitidae(Loaches)
48 Species: Jonklaas's Loach/Wiran Ahirawa/Ahirawa (Lepidocephalichthys jonklaasi - Deraniyagala 1956) Y CR
49 Species: Common Spiny Loach/Wiran Ahirawa/Ahirawa (Lepidocephalichthys thermalis - Valenciennes 1846) LC
Family: Balitoridae(Hillstream Loaches)
50 Species: Tiger Loach/Pol Ahirawa/Wiran Ahirawa (Acanthocobitis urophthalmus - Gunther 1868) Y EN
51 Species: Banded Mountain Loach/Kandu Ahirawa/Gomara Ahirawa/Pol Ahirawa(Schistura notostigma - Bleeker 1863) Y NT
Family: Siluridae(Sheat Catfishes)
52 Species: Butter Catfish/Walapoththa/Penawalaya/Kokassa (Ompok bimaculatus - Bloch 1794) LC
53 Species: Shark Catfish/Walaya/Maha Walaya (Wallago attu - Bloch & Schneider 1801) EN
Family: Bagridae(Bagrid Catfishes)
54 Species: Long-whiskered Catfish/Anguluwa/Mana ankutta (Mystus gulio - Hamilton 1822) LC
55 Species: Yellow Catfish/Path Ankutta (Mystus  seengtee- Sykes 1839)  LC
56 Species: Dwarf Catfish/Sri Lanka Ankutta (Mystus ankutta - Pethiyagoda et.al. 2008) Y EN
57 Species: Striped dwarf Catfish/Iri ankutta/Hiri ankutta (Mystus vittatus - Bloch 1794) LC
Family: Clariidae(Airbreathing Catfishes)
58 Species: Walking Catfish/Magura/Kaha Magura/Vel Magura (Clarias brachysoma Gunther 1864) Y NT
Family: Heteropneustidae(Airsac Catfishes)
59 Species: Stinging Catfish/Hunga/Le Hunga/Kaha Hunga (Heteropneustes fossilis  Bloch 1797) LC
Family: Adrianichthyidae (Rice fishes)
60 Species: Common Blue Eye/Indian Rice fish/Handhi Thiththaya/Handi hadaya (Oryzias dancena Hamiltom 1822) DD
61 Species: Spotted Ricefish/Handhi Thiththaya/Handi Hadaya (Oryzias carnaticus Jerdon 1849) DD
Family: Aplocheilidae(Rivulines)
62 Species: Day's Killifish/Uda Handaya (Aplocheilus dayi - Steindachner 1892) Y EN
63 Species: Dwarf panchax/Kalapu Handaya (Aplocheilus parvus -Raj 1916) LC
64 Species: Werner's Killifish/Iri handaya (Aplocheilus werneri - Meinken 1966) Y EN
Family: Cichlidae(Cichlids )
65 Species: Orange Chromide/Kaha Koraliya/Ralliya/Ran Koraliya (Etroplus maculatus - Bloch 1785) LC
66 Species: Green Chromide/Pearl Spot/Mal Koraliya (Etroplus suratensis - Bloch 1785) LC
67 Species: Ornate Paradisefish/Malpulutta (Malpulutta kretseri - Deraniyagala 1937) Y CR
68 Species: Spike-tailed Paradisefish/Pulutta/Thalkossa/Thalkadaya (Pseudosphromenus cupanus - Cuvier 1831) LC
69 Species: Combtail/Thalkossa/Pulutta/Kola modha (Belontia signata - Gunther 1861) Y NT
Family: Gobiidae(Gobies)
70 Species: Large-snout Goby/Scribbled goby/Bali weligowwa (Awaous melanocephalus - Bleeker 1849) LC
71 Species: Sharp-tail Goby/Weligwwa (Oligolepis acutipennis - Valenciennes 1837) DD
72 Species: Bar-eyed Goby/Maha weligowwa/Bali Weligowwa(Glossogobius giuris - Hamilton 1822) LC
73 Species: Red-neck Goby/Kata rathu weligowwa (Schismatogobius deraniyagalai - Kottelat & Pethiyagoda1989) EN
74 Species: Stone Goby/Maha gal weligowwa (Sicyopterus griseus - Day 1878) CR
75 Species: Red-tailed Goby/Gal weligowwa (Sicyopterus halei - Day 1888) CR
76 Species: Lipstick Goby/Thol rathu weligowwa (Sicyopus jonklaasi - Klausewitz & Henrich 1986) Y EN
77 Species: Malabar Goby/Weligowwa (Stenogobius malabaricus - Day 1865) DD
78 Species: Martenstyn's Goby/Weligowwa (Stiphodon martenstyni - Watson 1998) Y CE(PE)
Family: Anabantidae(Climbing Perches)
Species: Climbing Perch/Kawaiya/Pol Kawaiya (Anabas testudineus - Bloch 1795) LC
Family: Mastacembelidae(Spiny Eels)
80 Species: Lesser Spiny Eel/Batakola Theliya (Macrognathus pentophthalmos - Gronow, in Gray, 1854) Y CR(PE)
81 Species: Marbled Spiny Eel/Gan theliya/Oya theliya (Mastacembelus armatus - Lacepede 1803) LC
Family: Synbranchidae(Swamp Eels)
82 Species: Asian Swamp Eel/Potta Andha (Ophisternon bengalense - McClelland 1844) CR
83 Species: Lesser Swamp Eel/Dumburu Potta Andha (Monopterus desilvai - Gans & Bailey 1998) Y CR
Family: Channidae(Snakeheads)
84 Species: Brown Snakehead/Paradal Kanaya (Channa gachua - Hamilton 1822) LC
85 Species: Giant Snakehead/Aara/Gan ara/Kalu maha (Channa ara - Deraniyagala 1945) Y EN
86 Species: Smooth-breasted Snakehead/Kola kanaya/Gas kanaya (Channa orientalis - Blch & Schneder 1801) Y VU
87 Species: Spotted Snakehead/Madakanaya/Mada aara/Madakariya (Channa punctata -Bloch 1794) LC
88 Species: Striped Snakehead/Murrel/Lula/Halpath maha (Channa striata - Bloch 1793) LC
Family: Belonidae
89 Species: Freshwater gar-fish/Yonna(Xenentodon cancila - Hamilton 1822)  NT
Family: Eleotrididae
90 Species: Upside down sleeper/Uduppuwa/Vaniya(Butis butis - Hamilton 1822) LC
91 Species: Brown gudgeon/Dusky Sleeper/Puwakbadilla (Eleotris fusca - Bloch & Schneider 1801)

LC
Marine or/and Brackish  water species sometimes enter and remain in fresh water 

Family: Clupeidae
1 Species: Malabar Sprat/Gan Ehirawa(Ehirava fluviatilis - Deraniyagala 1929)
Family: Megalopidae
2 Species: Tarpon/Eleya/Mareva/Raanawa(Megalops cyprinoides - Broussonet 1782)
Family: Gobiidae(Gobies)
3 Species: Rhino-horn Goby/Deiri weligowwa(Redigobius balteatops - Smith 1959)
Family: Toxotidae
4 Species: Archer fish/Dimiththa (Toxotes chatareus - Hamilton 1822)
Family: Hemiramphidae
5 Species: Half beck/Moralla(Zenarchopterus dispar - Valenciennes 1846)
6 Species: Congaturi half Beck/Moralla(Hyporhamphus limbatus Valenciennes 1846)
Family: Syngnathidae
7 Species: Short-tailed pipefish/Kalapu Natta(Microphis brachyurus - Bleeker 1853)
8 Species: Ocellated pipefish/Punchi athu theliya/Natta(Microphis ocellatus - Dunker 1910)


Introduced Species

Family: Cyprinidae(Carps)
1 Species: Bighead Carp(Aristichthys nobilis)
2 Species: Golf fish (Carassius auratus)
3 Species: Catla (Catla catla)
4 Species: Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)
5 Species: Common Carp/Rata Pethiya(Cyprinus carpio)
6 Species: Silver carp(Hypothalmichthys molitrix)
7 Species: Mirigal(Cirrhinus mrigala)
8 Species: Rohu(Labeo rohita)
Family: Salmonidae
9 Rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Family: Poeciliidae
10 Mosquito fish(Gambusia affinis)
11 Guppy(Poecilia reticulata)
12 Green sword tail(Xiphophorus hellerii)
13 Platy(Xiphophorus maculatus)
Family: Cichlidae(Cichlids )
14 Tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus)
15 Tilapia/Japan Batta/Thethlipiya(Oreochromis mossambicus)
16 Tilapia(Oreochromis urolepis hornorum)
17 Tilapia(Oreochromis rendalli)
18 Tilapia(Oreochromis zilli)
Family: Belontiidae(Gouramis)
19 Snake skin gourami/Theppili/Wel gurami(Trichogaster pectoralis)
20 Three spot gourami/Theppili(Trichogaster trichopterus)
Family: Helostomatidae
21 Kissing gourami(Helostoma temminckii)
Family: Osphronemidae
22 Giant gourami/Yodha Gourami (Osphronemus goramy)
Family: Loricariidae
23 Sucker-mouthed cat fish/Sail fin pleco/Scavenger(Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus)
Family: Notopteridae
24 Knife fish/Feather backs/Mannaya(Chithala ornata)

CE
Critically Endangered
VU
Vulnerable
LC
Least Concern
EN
Endangered


NT
Near Threatened


E
Endemic

Literature cited:

Deraniyagala P.E.P (1929) Ceylon sardines. Spolia Zeylanica, 15(1): 31-47.
Deraniyagala P.E.P (1929) Two new freshwater fishes. Spolia Zeylanica, 15(2): 73-77. 
Deraniyagala P.E.P. (1933) A new mountain-stream fish Spolia Zeylanica, 17(3): 227-229.
Deraniyagala P.E.P (1937) Malpulutta kretseri - A new genus and species of fish from Ceylon Spolia Zeylanica, 20(3): 351-353.
Deraniyagala P.E.P (1943) A new Cyprincid fish from Ceylon. Journ. Roy. Asi. Soc. (C.B.) 35(96): 158-159.
Deraniyagala P.E.P. (1945) A new subspecies among some ophicephalids of Ceylon and India, Spolia Zeylanica, 24(2): 93.
Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (1952) A coloured atlas of some vertebrates from Ceylon. Vol. 1: Fishes. National Museums of Ceylon, Colombo: pp. 41-42.
Deraniyagala P.E.P. (1958) Three new Cyprincids: a new cat-fish and vaiations among some Cyprinoids and an Anabantoid of Ceylon Spolia Zeylanica, 28(2): 129-138. 
Deraniyagala P.E.P. (1960) A new subspecies of Chela laubuca from Ceylon Spolia Zeylanica, 29(1): 17. 
Gans C. & Bailey R. M. 1998. Two new synbranchid fishes, Monopterus roseni from peninsular India and M. desilvai from Sri Lanka. Occ. papers of the Mus. Of Zoology. The University of Michigan. 726:1-18.
Kottelat M. & Pethiyagoda R. (1989) Schismatogobius deraniyagalai, a new goby from Sri Lanka: description and field observations. (Osteichthyes, Gobiidae). Spixiama. 12(3): 315-320.
Kottelat M. & Pethiyagoda R. (1990), Danio pathirana, a new species of cyprinid fish endemic to southern  Sri Lanka, Ichthyol Explor. Freshwaters, Vol 1, No. 3.
Kottelat, M. & R. Pethiyagoda, (1991). Description of three new species of cyprinid fishes from Sri Lanka. In: Pethiyagoda, R.,Freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka. Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo. Pp. 299–313.
Meegaskumbura M., Silva A., Maduwage K. & Pethiyagoda R (2008). Puntius reval, a new barb from Sri Lanka (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), Ichthyol Explor. Freshwaters, Vol 19 No 2, pp. 141-152.
Pethiyagoda R, Kottelat M., Silva A.,Maduwage K., Meegaskumbura M. (2008). A review of the genus Laubuca in Sri Lanka, with description of three new species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) Ichthyol Explor. Freshwaters, Vol 19 No. 1, pp. 7-26.
Pethiyagoda R, Silva A.,Maduwage K., Meegaskumbura M. (2008). Puntius kelumi, a new species of cyprinid fish from Sri Lanka (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), Ichthyol Explor. Freshwaters, Vol 19 No. 3, pp. 201-214. 
Pethiyagoda R, Silva A., Maduwage K. (2008) Mystus ankutta. a new catfish from Sri Lanka(Teleostei: Bagridae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwater, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 233-242.
Goonatilake Sampath de Alwis 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of the Freshwater Fishes in Sri Lanka. In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D.K. & S. Wijesundara Eds.,Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka. x-y pp
Senanayake, F.R., (1985) Barbus srilankensis, a new species of cyprinid fish from Sri Lanka. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological Science), 15 (1982[1985]): 396–402.
Silva A., Maduwage K., Pethiyagoda R. (2008) Puntius kamalika, a new species of barb from Sri Lanka (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), Zootaxa 1824: 55–64.
Silva A., Maduwage K. & Pethiyagoda R (2010). A review of the genus Rasbora in Sri Lanka, with description of two new species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), Ichthyol Explor. Freshwaters, Vol 21, No. 1, pp. 27-50.
Pethiyagoda R., Meegaskumbura M. & Maduwage K. (2012) A synopsis of the South Asian fishes referred to Puntius (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 69-95 June 2012




References:

Deraniyagala P.E.P (1929) Some Anguilliform fishes of Ceylon. Spolia Zeylanica, 15(1): 1-29. 
Deraniyagala P.E.P (1929) Labyrinthici of Ceylon . Spolia Zeylanica, 15(2): 70-111 
Deraniyagala P.E.P (1930) The Eventognathi of Ceylon . Spolia Zeylanica, 16(1): 1-41 
Deraniyagala P.E.P (1930) The Opisthomi of Ceylon . Spolia Zeylanica, 16(3): 265-269.
Deraniyagala P.E.P (1930) The Nematognathoidea of Ceylon . Spolia Zeylanica, 16(3): 271-289.
Deraniyagala, P.E.P. (1952) A coloured atlas of some vertebrates from Ceylon. Vol. 1: Fishes. National Museums of Ceylon, Colombo, 149 pp., 34 pls.
Munro, I. S. R., (1955) The marine and freshwater fishes of Ceylon.Department of External Affairs, Canberra. 349 pp., 56 pls.
Maduranga H. G. S. (2003) Sirilaka awenika miridiya masun. National zoological department. 
Gunathilake S. (2007) Sri Lankawe miridiya masun(text in Sinhala), Biodiversity secretariat - Ministry of Envroment.
Gunawickrama K. B. S. 2008. Intraspecific variation in morphology and sexual dimorphism in Punius singhala (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), Cey. J. Sci. (Bio. Sci.) 37 (2): 167-175.
Pethiyagoda, R., (1991) Freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka. Wildlife Heritage Trust, Colombo. xiv+362 pp.
Pethiyagoda, R. and Kottelat, M. (2005). A review of the barbs of the Puntius filamentosus group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) of Southern India and Sri Lanka. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 12: 127-144.
Pethiyagoda R. (2006) Conservation of Sri Lankan freshwater fishes IN: The    fauna of Sri lanka:  status of taxonomy, research and conservation. IUCN, Sri lanka: 20-34.