Resident Birds of Sri Lanka

Bird species which breeds within the territory of the country are considered as Breeding residents. Exact number of breeding residents inhabiting the island is doubtful and varies authors have different figures base on their own definitions of categories they identified for grouping birds. Following table shows categories used and number of species grouped under them by two leading bird study groups of Sri Lanka FOGSL(Field Ornithology group of Sri Lanka) and CBC (Ceylon bird club).


Category
FOG
CBC
Breeding residents
219
236
Migrants
111
205(Purely migrants)
Breeding resident & Migrants
12

Breeding resident. Uncertain Migrants
1(Clamorous Reed-Warbler)

Migrants/Uncertain Breeding resident
4 (Indian Cuckoo, Common tern, Roseate Tern, Spot-billed duck)

Vagrants
92

Presence Uncertain
14

Status Unknown
39

Total(Endemic)
492(26)
441(33)

Current list contains 240 breeding residents as per 2012 national red list of Sri Lanka (Weerakoon D. K. and Gunawardena K. 2012). 




1
Painted Francolin [Painted Patridge]/Thith Ussawatuwa/Mal Ussawatuwa (Francolinus pictus watsoni)
CR

2
Grey Francolin[Grey Patridge]/Alu Ussawatuwa (Francolinus pondicerianus ceylonensis)
NT

3
Blue Quail [Blue-Breasted Quail/King Quail]/Nil Piriwatuwa/China Watuwa (Coturnix chinensis chinensis)
EN

4
Jungle Bush-quail/Wana Panduruwatuwa/Panduru Watuwa (Perdicula asiatica ceylonensis)
CR

5
Sri Lanka Spurfowl/Haban Kukula (Galloperdix bicalcarata)
NT

6
LC

7
LC




8
LC

9
NT


Comb Duck/ Kabaliththa/Kabalithiya(Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotes) (1)


10
CR




11
LC




12
LC

13
LC

14
Woolly-necked Stork/Padilimanawa/Padili Koka [Indian White-necked Stork] (Ciconia episcopus episcopus)                                         
NT

15
Black-necked Stork/Alimanawa/Ali Koka(Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus asiaticus)
CR

16
VU




17
LC

18
LC




19
NT

20
Cinnamon Bittern [Chestnut Bittern]/Kurundhu Matikoka/Thamba Matikoka(Ixobrychus cinnamomeus)
NT

21
LC

22
NT

23
LC

24
LC

25
LC

26
LC

27
LC

28
LC

29
LC

30
LC




31
LC




32
Great Cormorant/Maha Diyakawa/Indiyanu Diyakawa (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)
NT

33
LC

34
LC


Family: Anhingidae (Anhingas)


35
LC




36
Shaheen Falcon/Para Ukusugoya/Shaheen Kurulugoya (Falco peregrinus peregrinator)
VU

37
EN




38
Jerdon's Baza [Brown baza/Legge's Baza]/Bora Saratakussa/Legge Konda Kurulugoya (Aviceda jerdoni ceylonensis)
EN

39
Oriental Honey-buzzard [Crested   Honey-buzzard]/Silu Bambarakussa/Konda Bambara Ukussa(Pernis ptilorhyncus ruficollis)
NT

40
NT

41
LC

42
LC

43
White-bellied Sea-eagle/Kusa-ali Muhudukussa/Muhudu Rajaliya(Haliaeetus leucogaster)
LC

44
Grey-headed Fish-eagle/Alu-his Masukussa/Wew Rajaliya(Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus)
NT

45
LC

46
Crested Goshawk/Silu Kurulugoya/Konda Ukusu Kurulugoya (Accipiter trivirgatus layardi)
VU

47
LC

48
Besra Sparrowhawk/Besra Kurulugoya (Accipiter virgatus besra)
VU

49
NT

50
Rufous-bellied Eagle/Rufous-Bellied Hawk-Eagle/Kusa-rath Rajaliya/Dumburu Udarathi Konda Rajaliya (Hieraaetus kienerii kienerii)
NT

51
LC

52
Mountain Hawk-eagle/Hel Kondakussa/Maha Konda Rajaliya(Spizaetus nipalensis kelaarti)
VU




53
Slaty-breasted Rail [Blue-breasted banded Rail]/Layalu Gali-Reluwa/Dhara Kirimati Korawakka (Rallus striatus albiventer)
VU

54
LC

55
Ruddy-breasted Crake/Laya-rathu Wil-keraliya/Punchi Korawakka (Porzana fusca zeylonica)
VU

56
NT

57
LC

58
LC

59
CR

60
LC




61
LC




62
LC

63
LC


Family: Dromadidae (Crab Plver)


64
CR




65
LC




66
LC

67
LC

68
VU

69
VU


Family: Rostratulidae (Painted-snipes)


70
Greater Painted-snipe/Ralu Ulu-Kaswatuwa/Raja Keswatuwa(Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis)
VU




71
LC


Family: Glareolidae (Coursers & Pratincoles)


72
Indian Courser/Jawa Lihiniya/Weli-Kirala (Cursorius coromandelicus)
CR

73
Oriental Pratincole [Large Pranticole]/Peradiga Jawasariya/Loku Lihini-Oleiya (Glareola maldivarum)
EN

74
Small Pratincole/Punchi Jawasariya/Kda Lihini-Oleiya (Glareola lactea)
VU




75
NT

76
Roseate Tern[Rosy Tern]/Arunu Muhudhu-lihiniya/Rosa Muhudu Lihiniya (Sterna dougallii korustes)
CR

77
VU

78
Saunders's Tern/Sondhara Muhudu-lihiniya/Saundersge Punchi Muhudu Lihiniya (Sterna saundersi)
CR

79
CR

80
CR

81
Common Tern[Tibetan Common Tern]/Podhu Muhudhu-lihiniya/Tibbata Muhudu Lihiniya (Sterna hirundo)(5)
CR

82
Sooty Tern/Dhubutu Muhudhu-lihiniya/Deli Muhudu Lihiniya (Onychoprion fuscatus)(6)
CR

83
Bridled Tern[Brown-winged Tern]/Katakali Muhudhu-lihiniya/Dumburu Muhudu-Lihiniya (Onychoprion anaethetus)(7)
CR




84
CR

85
VU

86
NT

87
LC

88
LC

89
LC

90
Pompadour Green-pigeon [Sri Lanka Green Pigeon/Grey-fronted Green Pigeon]/Pitadham Batagoya/Pompidu Batagoya (Treron pompadora pompadora)
LC

91
Yellow-footed Green-pigeon [Yellow-legged Green-pigeon]/Ranpa Batagoya/Indianu Kaha-padathi Batagoya (Treron phoenicopterus phillipsi)
CR

92
LC




93
LC

94
Alexandrine Parakeet/Labu Girawa (Psittacula eupatria eupatria)
LC

95
LC

96
Plum-headed Parakeet/Padu Girawa/Rosa Girawa [Blossom-headed Parakeet] (Psittacula cyanocephala cyanocephala)
NT

97
NT




98
Pied Cuckoo [Pied Crested Cuckoo/Jacobin Cuckoo]/Gomara Kondakoha (Clamator jacobinus jacobinus)
LC

99
EN

100
Indian Cuckoo [Short-winged Cuckoo]/Indu Kokilaya/Indiyanu Koha (Cuculus micropterus micropterus)
LC

101
Banded Bay Cuckoo [Bay Banded Cuckoo]Waira Anukoha/Dumburu-Dhara Koha (Cacomantis sonneratii waiti)
NT

102
Drongo-cuckoo/Kawudu Koha(Surniculus lugubris stewarti)
NT

103
LC

104
Blue-faced Malkoha [Small Green-billed Malkoha]/Watha-Nil Malkoha/Nilmuhunathi Mal-koha (Phaenicophaeus viridirostris)
LC

105
Sirkeer Malkoha/Pathan Malkoha/Pathan Atikukula(Taccocua leschenaultii leschenaultii)
VU

106
Sri Lanka Red-faced Malkoha/Watha-rathu Malkoha/Rathu-Muhunathi Mal-Koha(Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus)
VU

107
LC

108
Sri Lanka Green-billed Coucal/Bata Atikukula [Ceylon Coucal] (Centropus chlororhynchos)
EN


Family: Tytonidae (Barn Owls)


109
Barn-owl/Atu Wesbassa/Asatika Atu Bakamuna (Tyto alba stertens)
NT

110
Oriental Bay Owl [Ceylon Bay owl]/Peradhiga Gurubassa/Tambala Bassa (Phodilus badius assimilis)
EN


Family: Strigidae (Owls)


111
Sri Lanka Serendib Scops-owl/Pandu Bassa (Otus thilohoffmanni)
EN

112
Oriental Scops-owl [Little Scops-owl]/Peradigu Kanbassa/Chuti Bassa (Otus sunia leggei)
NT

113
LC

114
Spot-bellied Eagle-owl [Forest  Eagle-owl/Devil Bird]/Ukusu Bakamoona/Ulama/Loku Bakamuna (Bubo nipalensis blighi)
NT

115
Brown Fish-owl [Ceylon Fish-owl]/Bora Kewulbakamoona/Malu Bakamuna (Ketupa zeylonensis zeylonensis)
LC

116
Brown Wood-owl/Bora Wanabakamoona/Wana Bakamuna (Strix leptogrammica ochrogenys)
NT

117
Jungle Owlet [Barred Jungle Owlet]/Wana Upabassa/Kela Bassa(Glaucidium radiatum radiatum)
NT

118
Sri Lanka Chestnut-backed Owlet [Sri Lanka Cuckoo Owlet]/Pitathambala Upabassa/Dumburu Kela Bassa (Glaucidium castanonotum)
VU

119
LC


Family: Podargidae (Frogmouths)


120
LC


Family: Caprimulgidae (Nightjars)


121
Grey Nightjar[Highland/Jungle Nightjar]/Alu Bimbassa/Kandukara Bimbassa(Caprimulgus indicus kelaarti)
LC

122
Jerdon's Nightjar [Long/Large-tailed nightjar/ Horsfield's Nightjar]/Digupedha Bimbassa/Digu pedhathi Bimbassa(Caprimulgus atripennis aequabilis)
LC

123
Indian Nightjar[Common nightjar]/Indu Bimbassa/Asiyathika Bimbassa (Caprimulgus asiaticus eidos)
LC


Family: Apodidae (Swifts)


124
Indian Swiftlet [Indian Edible-nest Swiflet]/Indu Upa-thurithaya/Kudukaara Wega-Lihiniya (Collocaila unicolor)
LC

125
Brown-backed Needletail [Brown-throated Spinetail Swift]/Pitabora Katu-thurithaya/Ul-pedhathi Wega-Lihiniya (Hirundapus giganteus indicus)
NT

126
LC

127
Alpine Swift[White-bellied Swift]/Alpine Piri-thurithaya/Sudu-Udarathi Wega-Lihiniya (Tachymarptis melba bakeri)
EN

128
Little Swift [House Swift/White-rumped Swift]/Punchi Thurithaya/Pita-Sudu Wega-Lihiniya(Apus affinis singalensis)
LC


Family: Hemiprocnidae(Treeswifts)


129
Crested Treeswift [Grey-rumped Tree Swift]/Silu Ruk-thurithaya/Konda Wega-Lihiniya (Hemiprocne coronata)
LC


Family: Trogonidae (Trogons)


130
NT




131
LC

132
Dollarbird [Broad-billed Roller]/Dhumkawa/Hota-Palal Dumbonna (Eurystomus orientalis irisi)
EN




133
LC

134
LC

135
NT

136
LC

137
Blue-eared Kingfisher/Nilakan Pilihuduwa/Kana-Nil Mal Pilihuduwa (Alcedo meninting phillipsi)
CR

138
LC




139
LC

140
LC

141
CR


Family: Upupidae (Hoopoes)


142
Eurasian Hoopoe/Common Hoopoe/Poroluwa/Poruwa Kurulla (Upupa epops ceylonensis)
LC


Family: Bucerotidae (Hornbills)


143
LC

144
Malabar Pied Hornbill/Poru Kadhaththa/Poruwa Kadaththa (Anthracoceros coronatus)
LC




145
LC

146
LC

147
LC

148
LC




149
Brown-capped woodpecker [Pygmy Woodpecker]/Bora Isasi Piri-Kerala/Chuti Kerala(Dendrocopos nanus gymnopthalmos)
LC

150
Yellow-crowned Woodpecker[Yellow-fronted Woodpecker]/Kaha-silu Piri-kerala/Gomara Kerala (Dendrocopos mahrattensis mahrattensis)
NT

151
Rufous Woodpecker/Borath Anukerala/Dumburu Kerala(Micropternus brachyurus jerdonii)
LC

152
 Lesser Yellownape[Yellow-naped Green Woodpecker]/Heen Kahagelasi Kerala/Konda Kaha Kerala (Picus chlorolophus wellsi)
NT

153
Streak-throated Woodpecker [Small scaly-bellied green woodpecker]/Iri-gela Kerala/Kola Kerala (Picus xanthopygaeus)
EN

154
LC

155
Greater Flameback [Crimson-backed woodpecker/Goldenback/Layard's]/Le-pita Maha-karala/Mookalan Kerala (Chrysocolaptes lucidus stricklandi)
LC

156
VU


Family: Artamidae (Woodswallows)


157
LC




158
LC

159
Marshall's Iora [White-tailed Iora]/Pendhasudu Ayorawa (Aegithina nigrolutea)
VU




160
LC

161
LC

162
Black-headed Cuckooshrike/Kalu-his Kowulsaratiththa/Kalu-Hisathi Kowul Aspatiya(Coracina melanoptera sykesi)
LC

163
Small Minivet/Punchi Miniwiththa/Heen Ginikurulla(Pericrocotus cinnamomeus cinnamomeus)
LC

164
LC

165
LC




166
Long-tailed Shrike(Rufouse-backed/rumped Shrike]/Dikpedha Sabariththa/Pita-Dumburu Aspatiya (Lanius schach caniceps)
VU


Family: Oriolidae (Orioles & Figbirds)


167
LC


Family: Dicruridae (Drongos)


168
Sri Lanka Crested Drongo [Ceylon Crested Drongo/Sri Lanka Drongo]/Maha Kawuda/Konda Kawuda (Dicrurus lophorhinus)
VU

169
Greater Racket-tailed Drongo/Maha Kawuda(Dicrurus paradiseus ceylonicus)
NT

170
LC

171
LC


Family: Rhipiduridae (Fantails)


172
LC




173
LC

174
LC




175
VU

176
LC

177
LC


Family: Paridae (Tits & Chickadees)


178
Great Tit [Grey Tit/Asian Grey Tit]/Maha Tikiriththa/Alu Panu-Kurulla (Parus major mahrattarum)
LC




179
VU

180
LC




181
LC

182
LC

183
LC




184
LC

185
LC

186
LC

187
LC

188
LC




189
LC

190
LC

191
VU

192
LC

193
LC

194
LC




195
LC

196
Sri Lanka Bush-warbler [Ceylon Warbler/Palliser's Warbler]/Wanarawiya/Lanka Hambu Kurulla (Bradypterus palliseri)
EN

197
Clamorous Reed-warbler [Great Reed-warbler/Indian Great Reed Warbler] (Acrocephalus stentoreus brunnescens)

NT







198
LC



199
Sri Lanka Scimitar-babbler/Da-Demalichcha/Dekethi Demalichcha (Pomatorhinus melanurus melanurus)
LC



200
Tawny-bellied Babbler [White-throated Babbler/Rufous Bellied Babbler]Kusa-kaha Landu Demalichcha/Gela-Sudu Demalichcha (Dumetia hyperythra phillip
LC

201
LC



202
Yellow-eyed Babbler/Neth-kaha Tana-demalichcha/As-Kaha Demalichcha (Chrysomma sinense nasale)
LC

203
VU


204
LC

205
Ashy-headed Laughingthrush/Hisalu Upa-demalichcha/Alu Demalichcha (Garrulax cinereifrons)
EN






206
NT



207
LC


Family: Irenidae (Fairy-bluebirds)





Asian Fairy-Bluebird/Neelarajaya/Nilraja Kurulla(Irena puella puella)(8)









208
LC





209
VU



210
LC



211
Sri Lanka White-faced Starling [Ceylon White-headed Starling/Mynah]Watha-sudu Saarikawa/Hisa-Sudu Mynah (Sturnia albofrontatus)
EN



212
LC








213
Sri Lanka Whistling-thrush/Arangaya/Siwuruhandena Wal-Avichchiya (Myophonus blighi)
EN

214
VU


215
Sri Lanka Scaly Thrush[Mountain Thrush]/Kayuru Thirasikaya/Lanka Wal-Aichchiya(Zoothera imbricata)
EN



216
EN








217
LC

218
LC



219
LC



220
Pied Bushchat/Gomara Sitibichcha/Gomara Batti Kurulla (Saxicola caprata atrata)
EN



221
VU

222
LC

223
Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher[Grey-headed Flycatcher]/Alu-his Kaha-masimara/Hisa Alu Maarawa (Culicicapa ceylonensis ceylonensis)
LC





224
Jerdon's Leafbird [Blue-winged Leafbird/Jerdon's Chloropsis]/Jaradan Kolarisiya/Jerdonge Gira Kurulla(Chloropsis jerdoni) 
LC



225
LC




226
LC



227
Thick-billed Flowerpecker/Mathudu Pililichcha/Hota-Loku Pililagedi Sutikka(Dicaeum agile zeylonense)
NT

228
Sri Lanka white-throated Flowerpecker [Legge's Flowerpecker]/Sri Lanka Pililichcha (Dicaeum vincens)
VU





229
LC

230
Purple Sunbird/Dham Sootikka (Nectarinia asiatica asiatica)
LC



231
LC








232
LC








233
Streaked Weaver [Striated Weaver]/Pan Wadukurulla/Dara Wadu-Kurulla (Ploceus manyar flaviceps)
NT



234
LC








235
LC



236
LC



237
Black-throated Munia [Hill Munia/Kelaart's Munia]/Gela-kalu Wee-kurulla/Kandhukara Wee-Kurulla (Lonchura kelaarti kelaarti)
VU



238




Chestnut Munia/Thambala Wee-kurulla (Lonchura atricapilla)(9)





Java Sparrow(Padda oryzivora)(10)





Red Avadavat/Rathu Amandawa(Amandava amandava)(11)




239
VU






240
LC













References:


Anon. 1977. Fairy Blue Birds. Loris. 14(4):243


Harrison, J. 2011. A Field Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka. (2nd edition). New York:Oxford University Press.

Henry G.M.  1998 A Guide to the birds of Sri Lanka. (3rd edition). Delhi:Oxford University Press.


Hoffmann, T. W. , 1988. Notes from the Ceylon Bird Club 1987, A brief avifaunal survey. Loris, 18(1), 23-25

IUCN Sri Lanka & the Ministry of Environmental and Natural Resources. 2007. The 2007 Red List of Threatened Fauna and Flora of Sri Lanka

Kaluthota C.D. & Kotagama S.W. 2009. Revised Avifaunal List of Sri Lanka, Field Ornithology Group of Sri Lanka. 

Kotagama, S.W., de Silva, Rex I., Wijayasinha A.S. & Abeygunawardane V. 2006. Avifaunal List of Sri Lanka IN: Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. (Editor), Fauna of Sri Lanka: Status of taxonomy, research and conservation. IUCN, Sri lanka.

Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010. An illustrated Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka. Field Ornithology Group of Sri Lanka, Colombo.

Legge 1880 A History of the birds of Ceylon 1983 second edition. Tisara Publishers.

Phillips W.W.A 1978 Annotated checklist of the Birds of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) 1978 revised edition. Wildlife and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka and Ceylon Bird Club.

Ranasinghe, D.B., de Silva, T.S.U. 1994. Sri Lanka Kurulu Naamavaliya (Sri Lanka Avifaunal List). Wildlife and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka in association with the Ceylon Bird Club. 

Ranasinghe, D. B. (1997). Gaps on Field data for Sri Lankan Birds. Loris, 21(4), 170-172. 

Repley 1982 A synopsis of the birds of India and Pakistan together with those of Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

Wait, W.E. 1931 Manual of the Birds of Ceylon. 2nd edition. Colombo: Colombo museum.

Warakagoda, D. and Sirivardana, U. 2009. The Avifauna of Sri Lanka: An overview of the current status. Taprobanica 1:28-35 

Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012. Helm Field Guides - Birds of Sri Lanka. Christopher Helm, London.

Weerakoon D. K. and Gunawardena K. 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of Birds in Sri Lanka. In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D.K. & S. Wijesundara Eds., Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 114-133 pp

Whistler, H. 1944 The Avifaunal survey of Ceylon conducted jointly by the British and Colombo museums, Checklist of the Birds of Sri Lanka Spolia Zeylanica 23: 119-321

Wijesinghe, D. P. 1983. Notes on some Rare Sri Lanka Birds -1. Loris, 16(4), 205-208.

Wijesinghe D.P. 1991 Checklist of the birds of Sri Lanka. Ceylon Bird Club


Endnotes

* Blue-tailed bee-eater is a very common migrant bird which can be seen throughout the island during the migrate season. However small flocks are recorded of breeding in eastern dry lowlands(Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

1) Formerly resident bird of the country, but was considered as an extinct in Sri Lanka (Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010). Possible winter migrants to the dry lowlands (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

2) Rather uncommon winter migrant. Also some birds may breed in wet zone well wooded marsh lands, rivers and such water bodies (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

3), 4), 5)  Common winter migrant. Possible few breeding birds in northern offshore islands (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

6) An uncommon passage migrant (Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010).  Possible breeding birds in off north-western coast (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

7) Winter migrant possibly also breeds on off north-western coast islands (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

8) Possibly former resident bird, but was considered as extinct in Sri Lanka. Two recent unconfirmed sight records at Gilimale and Kuruwita (Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010). Possible vagrant (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012). 
         * 1987 February – Doubtful sight record at Gilimale (Hoffmann, T. W., 1988)
         * A bird watcher has reported of presence of a flock of 6 birds, drinking at a waterhole north of trincomalee (Anon, 1977)

9) While including this bird to his country list base on a remark made by Layad that he found this Munia at Galle, Legge suspected that its presence in the Galle district must have been owing to a flock escaped from a ship at Galle harbor (Legge 1880 : 850). During 1977-1981 pest species survey it was seen by Dr Sarath Kotagama in the Hingurana and Udawalawe areas and again recorded at Ridiyagama by A.J. Vincent (Kotagama S. & Ratnavira G. 2010:.318) 

10) An introduced bird. Breeding birds recorded around Colombo (Legge, 1880). No recent records (Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010).

11) Former records from Colombo and Galle (Legge, 1880). No records thereafter (Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010)


Endemic
CR -  Critically Endangered
EN - Endangered
VU - Vulnerable
NT - Near Threatened 
LC - Least Concern
Proposed Endemic

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