Resident Birds of Sri Lanka

Bird species which breeds within the territory of the country are considered as Breeding residents. Exact number of breeding residents inhabiting the island is doubtful and varies authors have different figures base on their own definitions of categories they identified for grouping birds. Following table shows categories used and number of species grouped under them by two leading bird study groups of Sri Lanka FOGSL(Field Ornithology group of Sri Lanka) and CBC (Ceylon bird club).


Category
FOG
CBC
Breeding residents
219
236
Migrants
111
205(Purely migrants)
Breeding resident & Migrants
12

Breeding resident. Uncertain Migrants
1(Clamorous Reed-Warbler)

Migrants/Uncertain Breeding resident
4 (Indian Cuckoo, Common tern, Roseate Tern, Spot-billed duck)

Vagrants
92

Presence Uncertain
14

Status Unknown
39

Total(Endemic)
492(26)
441(33)

Current list contains 240 breeding residents as per 2012 national red list of Sri Lanka (Weerakoon D. K. and Gunawardena K. 2012). 




1

Painted Francolin [Painted Patridge]/Thith Ussawatuwa/Mal Ussawatuwa (Francolinus pictus watsoni)

CR


2

Grey Francolin[Grey Patridge]/Alu Ussawatuwa (Francolinus pondicerianus ceylonensis)

NT


3

Blue Quail [Blue-Breasted Quail/King Quail]/Nil Piriwatuwa/China Watuwa (Coturnix chinensis chinensis)

EN


4

Jungle Bush-quail/Wana Panduruwatuwa/Panduru Watuwa (Perdicula asiatica ceylonensis)

CR


5

Sri Lanka Spurfowl/Haban Kukula (Galloperdix bicalcarata)

NT


6

LC


7

LC





8

LC


9

NT



Comb Duck/ Kabaliththa/Kabalithiya(Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotes) (1)



10

CR





11

LC





12

LC


13

LC


14

Woolly-necked Stork/Padilimanawa/Padili Koka [Indian White-necked Stork] (Ciconia episcopus episcopus)                                         

NT


15

Black-necked Stork/Alimanawa/Ali Koka(Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus asiaticus)

CR


16

VU





17

LC


18

LC





19

NT


20

Cinnamon Bittern [Chestnut Bittern]/Kurundhu Matikoka/Thamba Matikoka(Ixobrychus cinnamomeus)

NT


21

LC


22

NT


23

LC


24

LC


25

LC


26

LC


27

LC


28

LC


29

LC


30

LC





31

LC





32

Great Cormorant/Maha Diyakawa/Indiyanu Diyakawa (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)

NT


33

LC


34

LC



Family: Anhingidae (Anhingas)



35

LC





36

Shaheen Falcon/Para Ukusugoya/Shaheen Kurulugoya (Falco peregrinus peregrinator)

VU


37

EN





38

Jerdon's Baza [Brown baza/Legge's Baza]/Bora Saratakussa/Legge Konda Kurulugoya (Aviceda jerdoni ceylonensis)

EN


39

Oriental Honey-buzzard [Crested   Honey-buzzard]/Silu Bambarakussa/Konda Bambara Ukussa(Pernis ptilorhyncus ruficollis)

NT


40

NT


41

LC


42

LC


43

White-bellied Sea-eagle/Kusa-ali Muhudukussa/Muhudu Rajaliya(Haliaeetus leucogaster)

LC


44

NT


45

LC


46

Crested Goshawk/Silu Kurulugoya/Konda Ukusu Kurulugoya (Accipiter trivirgatus layardi)

VU


47

LC


48

Besra Sparrowhawk/Besra Kurulugoya (Accipiter virgatus besra)

VU


49

NT


50

Rufous-bellied Eagle/Rufous-Bellied Hawk-Eagle/Kusa-rath Rajaliya/Dumburu Udarathi Konda Rajaliya (Hieraaetus kienerii kienerii)

NT


51

LC


52

Mountain Hawk-eagle/Hel Kondakussa/Maha Konda Rajaliya(Spizaetus nipalensis kelaarti)

VU





53

Slaty-breasted Rail [Blue-breasted banded Rail]/Layalu Gali-Reluwa/Dhara Kirimati Korawakka (Rallus striatus albiventer)

VU


54

LC


55

Ruddy-breasted Crake/Laya-rathu Wil-keraliya/Punchi Korawakka (Porzana fusca zeylonica)

VU


56

NT


57

LC


58

LC


59

CR


60

LC





61

LC





62

LC


63

LC



Family: Dromadidae (Crab Plver)



64

CR





65

LC





66

LC


67

LC


68

VU


69

VU



Family: Rostratulidae (Painted-snipes)



70

Greater Painted-snipe/Ralu Ulu-Kaswatuwa/Raja Keswatuwa(Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis)

VU





71

LC



Family: Glareolidae (Coursers & Pratincoles)



72

Indian Courser/Jawa Lihiniya/Weli-Kirala (Cursorius coromandelicus)

CR


73

Oriental Pratincole [Large Pranticole]/Peradiga Jawasariya/Loku Lihini-Oleiya (Glareola maldivarum)

EN


74

Small Pratincole/Punchi Jawasariya/Kda Lihini-Oleiya (Glareola lactea)

VU





75

NT


76

Roseate Tern[Rosy Tern]/Arunu Muhudhu-lihiniya/Rosa Muhudu Lihiniya (Sterna dougallii korustes)

CR


77

VU


78

Saunders's Tern/Sondhara Muhudu-lihiniya/Saundersge Punchi Muhudu Lihiniya (Sterna saundersi)

CR


79

CR


80

CR


81

Common Tern[Tibetan Common Tern]/Podhu Muhudhu-lihiniya/Tibbata Muhudu Lihiniya (Sterna hirundo)(5)

CR


82

Sooty Tern/Dhubutu Muhudhu-lihiniya/Deli Muhudu Lihiniya (Onychoprion fuscatus)(6)

CR


83

Bridled Tern[Brown-winged Tern]/Katakali Muhudhu-lihiniya/Dumburu Muhudu-Lihiniya (Onychoprion anaethetus)(7)

CR





84

CR


85

VU


86

NT


87

LC


88

LC


89

LC


90

Pompadour Green-pigeon [Sri Lanka Green Pigeon/Grey-fronted Green Pigeon]/Pitadham Batagoya/Pompidu Batagoya (Treron pompadora pompadora)

LC


91

Yellow-footed Green-pigeon [Yellow-legged Green-pigeon]/Ranpa Batagoya/Indianu Kaha-padathi Batagoya (Treron phoenicopterus phillipsi)

CR


92

LC





93

LC


94

Alexandrine Parakeet/Labu Girawa (Psittacula eupatria eupatria)

LC


95

LC


96

Plum-headed Parakeet/Padu Girawa/Rosa Girawa [Blossom-headed Parakeet] (Psittacula cyanocephala cyanocephala)

NT


97

NT





98

Pied Cuckoo [Pied Crested Cuckoo/Jacobin Cuckoo]/Gomara Kondakoha (Clamator jacobinus jacobinus)

LC


99

EN


100

Indian Cuckoo [Short-winged Cuckoo]/Indu Kokilaya/Indiyanu Koha (Cuculus micropterus micropterus)

LC


101

Banded Bay Cuckoo [Bay Banded Cuckoo]Waira Anukoha/Dumburu-Dhara Koha (Cacomantis sonneratii waiti)

NT


102

Drongo-cuckoo/Kawudu Koha(Surniculus lugubris stewarti)

NT


103

LC


104

Blue-faced Malkoha [Small Green-billed Malkoha]/Watha-Nil Malkoha/Nilmuhunathi Mal-koha (Phaenicophaeus viridirostris)

LC


105

Sirkeer Malkoha/Pathan Malkoha/Pathan Atikukula(Taccocua leschenaultii leschenaultii)

VU


106

Sri Lanka Red-faced Malkoha/Watha-rathu Malkoha/Rathu-Muhunathi Mal-Koha(Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus)

VU


107

LC


108

Sri Lanka Green-billed Coucal/Bata Atikukula [Ceylon Coucal] (Centropus chlororhynchos)

EN



Family: Tytonidae (Barn Owls)



109

Barn-owl/Atu Wesbassa/Asatika Atu Bakamuna (Tyto alba stertens)

NT


110

Oriental Bay Owl [Ceylon Bay owl]/Peradhiga Gurubassa/Tambala Bassa (Phodilus badius assimilis)

EN



Family: Strigidae (Owls)



111

Sri Lanka Serendib Scops-owl/Pandu Bassa (Otus thilohoffmanni)

EN


112

Oriental Scops-owl [Little Scops-owl]/Peradigu Kanbassa/Chuti Bassa (Otus sunia leggei)

NT


113

LC


114

Spot-bellied Eagle-owl [Forest  Eagle-owl/Devil Bird]/Ukusu Bakamoona/Ulama/Loku Bakamuna (Bubo nipalensis blighi)

NT


115

Brown Fish-owl [Ceylon Fish-owl]/Bora Kewulbakamoona/Malu Bakamuna (Ketupa zeylonensis zeylonensis)

LC


116

Brown Wood-owl/Bora Wanabakamoona/Wana Bakamuna (Strix leptogrammica ochrogenys)

NT


117

Jungle Owlet [Barred Jungle Owlet]/Wana Upabassa/Kela Bassa(Glaucidium radiatum radiatum)

NT


118

Sri Lanka Chestnut-backed Owlet [Sri Lanka Cuckoo Owlet]/Pitathambala Upabassa/Dumburu Kela Bassa (Glaucidium castanonotum)

VU


119

LC



Family: Podargidae (Frogmouths)



120

LC



Family: Caprimulgidae (Nightjars)



121

Grey Nightjar[Highland/Jungle Nightjar]/Alu Bimbassa/Kandukara Bimbassa(Caprimulgus indicus kelaarti)

LC


122

Jerdon's Nightjar [Long/Large-tailed nightjar/ Horsfield's Nightjar]/Digupedha Bimbassa/Digu pedhathi Bimbassa(Caprimulgus atripennis aequabilis)

LC


123

Indian Nightjar[Common nightjar]/Indu Bimbassa/Asiyathika Bimbassa (Caprimulgus asiaticus eidos)

LC



Family: Apodidae (Swifts)



124

Indian Swiftlet [Indian Edible-nest Swiflet]/Indu Upa-thurithaya/Kudukaara Wega-Lihiniya (Collocaila unicolor)

LC


125

Brown-backed Needletail [Brown-throated Spinetail Swift]/Pitabora Katu-thurithaya/Ul-pedhathi Wega-Lihiniya (Hirundapus giganteus indicus)

NT


126

LC


127

Alpine Swift[White-bellied Swift]/Alpine Piri-thurithaya/Sudu-Udarathi Wega-Lihiniya (Tachymarptis melba bakeri)

EN


128

Little Swift [House Swift/White-rumped Swift]/Punchi Thurithaya/Pita-Sudu Wega-Lihiniya(Apus affinis singalensis)

LC



Family: Hemiprocnidae(Treeswifts)



129

Crested Treeswift [Grey-rumped Tree Swift]/Silu Ruk-thurithaya/Konda Wega-Lihiniya (Hemiprocne coronata)

LC



Family: Trogonidae (Trogons)



130

NT





131

LC


132

Dollarbird [Broad-billed Roller]/Dhumkawa/Hota-Palal Dumbonna (Eurystomus orientalis irisi)

EN





133

LC


134

LC


135

NT


136

LC


137

Blue-eared Kingfisher/Nilakan Pilihuduwa/Kana-Nil Mal Pilihuduwa (Alcedo meninting phillipsi)

CR


138

LC





139

LC


140

LC


141

CR



Family: Upupidae (Hoopoes)



142

Eurasian Hoopoe/Common Hoopoe/Poroluwa/Poruwa Kurulla (Upupa epops ceylonensis)

LC



Family: Bucerotidae (Hornbills)



143

LC


144

Malabar Pied Hornbill/Poru Kadhaththa/Poruwa Kadaththa (Anthracoceros coronatus)

LC





145

LC


146

LC


147

LC


148

LC





149

Brown-capped woodpecker [Pygmy Woodpecker]/Bora Isasi Piri-Kerala/Chuti Kerala(Dendrocopos nanus gymnopthalmos)

LC


150

Yellow-crowned Woodpecker[Yellow-fronted Woodpecker]/Kaha-silu Piri-kerala/Gomara Kerala (Dendrocopos mahrattensis mahrattensis)

NT


151

Rufous Woodpecker/Borath Anukerala/Dumburu Kerala(Micropternus brachyurus jerdonii)

LC


152

 Lesser Yellownape[Yellow-naped Green Woodpecker]/Heen Kahagelasi Kerala/Konda Kaha Kerala (Picus chlorolophus wellsi)

NT


153

Streak-throated Woodpecker [Small scaly-bellied green woodpecker]/Iri-gela Kerala/Kola Kerala (Picus xanthopygaeus)

EN


154

LC


155

Greater Flameback [Crimson-backed woodpecker/Goldenback/Layard's]/Le-pita Maha-karala/Mookalan Kerala (Chrysocolaptes lucidus stricklandi)

LC


156

VU



Family: Artamidae (Woodswallows)



157

LC





158

LC


159

Marshall's Iora [White-tailed Iora]/Pendhasudu Ayorawa (Aegithina nigrolutea)

VU





160

LC


161

LC


162

Black-headed Cuckooshrike/Kalu-his Kowulsaratiththa/Kalu-Hisathi Kowul Aspatiya(Coracina melanoptera sykesi)

LC


163

Small Minivet/Punchi Miniwiththa/Heen Ginikurulla(Pericrocotus cinnamomeus cinnamomeus)

LC


164

LC


165

LC





166

Long-tailed Shrike(Rufouse-backed/rumped Shrike]/Dikpedha Sabariththa/Pita-Dumburu Aspatiya (Lanius schach caniceps)

VU



Family: Oriolidae (Orioles & Figbirds)



167

LC



Family: Dicruridae (Drongos)



168

Sri Lanka Crested Drongo [Ceylon Crested Drongo/Sri Lanka Drongo]/Maha Kawuda/Konda Kawuda (Dicrurus lophorhinus)

VU


169

Greater Racket-tailed Drongo/Maha Kawuda(Dicrurus paradiseus ceylonicus)

NT


170

LC


171

LC



Family: Rhipiduridae (Fantails)



172

LC





173

LC


174

LC





175

VU


176

LC


177

LC



Family: Paridae (Tits & Chickadees)



178

Great Tit [Grey Tit/Asian Grey Tit]/Maha Tikiriththa/Alu Panu-Kurulla (Parus major mahrattarum)

LC





179

VU


180

LC





181

LC


182

LC


183

LC





184

LC


185

LC


186

LC


187

LC


188

LC





189

LC


190

LC


191

VU


192

LC


193

LC


194

LC





195

LC


196

Sri Lanka Bush-warbler [Ceylon Warbler/Palliser's Warbler]/Wanarawiya/Lanka Hambu Kurulla (Bradypterus palliseri)

EN


197

Clamorous Reed-warbler [Great Reed-warbler/Indian Great Reed Warbler] (Acrocephalus stentoreus brunnescens)


NT








198

LC




199

Sri Lanka Scimitar-babbler/Da-Demalichcha/Dekethi Demalichcha (Pomatorhinus melanurus melanurus)

LC




200

Tawny-bellied Babbler [White-throated Babbler/Rufous Bellied Babbler]Kusa-kaha Landu Demalichcha/Gela-Sudu Demalichcha (Dumetia hyperythra phillip

LC


201

LC




202

Yellow-eyed Babbler/Neth-kaha Tana-demalichcha/As-Kaha Demalichcha (Chrysomma sinense nasale)

LC


203

VU



204

LC


205

Ashy-headed Laughingthrush/Hisalu Upa-demalichcha/Alu Demalichcha (Garrulax cinereifrons)

EN







206

NT




207

LC



Family: Irenidae (Fairy-bluebirds)






Asian Fairy-Bluebird/Neelarajaya/Nilraja Kurulla(Irena puella puella)(8)










208

LC






209

VU




210

LC




211

Sri Lanka White-faced Starling [Ceylon White-headed Starling/Mynah]Watha-sudu Saarikawa/Hisa-Sudu Mynah (Sturnia albofrontatus)

EN




212

LC









213

Sri Lanka Whistling-thrush/Arangaya/Siwuruhandena Wal-Avichchiya (Myophonus blighi)

EN


214

VU



215

Sri Lanka Scaly Thrush[Mountain Thrush]/Kayuru Thirasikaya/Lanka Wal-Aichchiya(Zoothera imbricata)

EN




216

EN









217

LC


218

LC




219

LC




220

Pied Bushchat/Gomara Sitibichcha/Gomara Batti Kurulla (Saxicola caprata atrata)

EN




221

VU


222

LC


223

Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher[Grey-headed Flycatcher]/Alu-his Kaha-masimara/Hisa Alu Maarawa (Culicicapa ceylonensis ceylonensis)

LC






224

Jerdon's Leafbird [Blue-winged Leafbird/Jerdon's Chloropsis]/Jaradan Kolarisiya/Jerdonge Gira Kurulla(Chloropsis jerdoni) 

LC




225

LC





226

LC




227

Thick-billed Flowerpecker/Mathudu Pililichcha/Hota-Loku Pililagedi Sutikka(Dicaeum agile zeylonense)

NT


228

Sri Lanka white-throated Flowerpecker [Legge's Flowerpecker]/Sri Lanka Pililichcha (Dicaeum vincens)

VU






229

LC


230

Purple Sunbird/Dham Sootikka (Nectarinia asiatica asiatica)

LC




231

LC









232

LC









233

Streaked Weaver [Striated Weaver]/Pan Wadukurulla/Dara Wadu-Kurulla (Ploceus manyar flaviceps)

NT




234

LC









235

LC




236

LC




237

Black-throated Munia [Hill Munia/Kelaart's Munia]/Gela-kalu Wee-kurulla/Kandhukara Wee-Kurulla (Lonchura kelaarti kelaarti)

VU




238

LC





Chestnut Munia/Thambala Wee-kurulla (Lonchura atricapilla)(9)






Java Sparrow(Padda oryzivora)(10)






Red Avadavat/Rathu Amandawa(Amandava amandava)(11)





239

VU







240

LC














References:


Anon. 1977. Fairy Blue Birds. Loris. 14(4):243


Harrison, J. 2011. A Field Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka. (2nd edition). New York:Oxford University Press.

Henry G.M.  1998 A Guide to the birds of Sri Lanka. (3rd edition). Delhi:Oxford University Press.


Hoffmann, T. W. , 1988. Notes from the Ceylon Bird Club 1987, A brief avifaunal survey. Loris, 18(1), 23-25

IUCN Sri Lanka & the Ministry of Environmental and Natural Resources. 2007. The 2007 Red List of Threatened Fauna and Flora of Sri Lanka

Kaluthota C.D. & Kotagama S.W. 2009. Revised Avifaunal List of Sri Lanka, Field Ornithology Group of Sri Lanka. 

Kotagama, S.W., de Silva, Rex I., Wijayasinha A.S. & Abeygunawardane V. 2006. Avifaunal List of Sri Lanka IN: Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. (Editor), Fauna of Sri Lanka: Status of taxonomy, research and conservation. IUCN, Sri lanka.

Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010. An illustrated Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka. Field Ornithology Group of Sri Lanka, Colombo.

Legge 1880 A History of the birds of Ceylon 1983 second edition. Tisara Publishers.

Phillips W.W.A 1978 Annotated checklist of the Birds of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) 1978 revised edition. Wildlife and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka and Ceylon Bird Club.

Ranasinghe, D.B., de Silva, T.S.U. 1994. Sri Lanka Kurulu Naamavaliya (Sri Lanka Avifaunal List). Wildlife and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka in association with the Ceylon Bird Club. 

Ranasinghe, D. B. (1997). Gaps on Field data for Sri Lankan Birds. Loris, 21(4), 170-172. 

Repley 1982 A synopsis of the birds of India and Pakistan together with those of Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

Wait, W.E. 1931 Manual of the Birds of Ceylon. 2nd edition. Colombo: Colombo museum.

Warakagoda, D. and Sirivardana, U. 2009. The Avifauna of Sri Lanka: An overview of the current status. Taprobanica 1:28-35 

Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012. Helm Field Guides - Birds of Sri Lanka. Christopher Helm, London.

Weerakoon D. K. and Gunawardena K. 2012. The Taxonomy and Conservation Status of Birds in Sri Lanka. In: The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; Conservation Status of the Fauna and Flora. Weerakoon, D.K. & S. Wijesundara Eds., Ministry of Environment, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 114-133 pp

Whistler, H. 1944 The Avifaunal survey of Ceylon conducted jointly by the British and Colombo museums, Checklist of the Birds of Sri Lanka Spolia Zeylanica 23: 119-321

Wijesinghe, D. P. 1983. Notes on some Rare Sri Lanka Birds -1. Loris, 16(4), 205-208.

Wijesinghe D.P. 1991 Checklist of the birds of Sri Lanka. Ceylon Bird Club


Endnotes

* Blue-tailed bee-eater is a very common migrant bird which can be seen throughout the island during the migrate season. However small flocks are recorded of breeding in eastern dry lowlands(Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

1) Formerly resident bird of the country, but was considered as an extinct in Sri Lanka (Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010). Possible winter migrants to the dry lowlands (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

2) Rather uncommon winter migrant. Also some birds may breed in wet zone well wooded marsh lands, rivers and such water bodies (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

3), 4), 5)  Common winter migrant. Possible few breeding birds in northern offshore islands (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

6) An uncommon passage migrant (Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010).  Possible breeding birds in off north-western coast (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

7) Winter migrant possibly also breeds on off north-western coast islands (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012)

8) Possibly former resident bird, but was considered as extinct in Sri Lanka. Two recent unconfirmed sight records at Gilimale and Kuruwita (Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010). Possible vagrant (Warakagoda, D., Inskipp, C., Inskipp, T. & Grimmett, R. 2012). 
         * 1987 February – Doubtful sight record at Gilimale (Hoffmann, T. W., 1988)
         * A bird watcher has reported of presence of a flock of 6 birds, drinking at a waterhole north of trincomalee (Anon, 1977)

9) While including this bird to his country list base on a remark made by Layad that he found this Munia at Galle, Legge suspected that its presence in the Galle district must have been owing to a flock escaped from a ship at Galle harbor (Legge 1880 : 850). During 1977-1981 pest species survey it was seen by Dr Sarath Kotagama in the Hingurana and Udawalawe areas and again recorded at Ridiyagama by A.J. Vincent (Kotagama S. & Ratnavira G. 2010:.318) 

10) An introduced bird. Breeding birds recorded around Colombo (Legge, 1880). No recent records (Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010).

11) Former records from Colombo and Galle (Legge, 1880). No records thereafter (Kotagama, S., Ratnavira, G. 2010)


Endemic
CR -  Critically Endangered
EN - Endangered
VU - Vulnerable
NT - Near Threatened 
LC - Least Concern
Proposed Endemic

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